Markers

14 March 2023
Markers

Albumin

Albumin
What is albumin?Albumin is a protein made by the liver. It keeps fluid inside blood vessels, nourishes tissues, and transports substances like hormones, vitamins, drugs, and minerals around your body.   Why test albumin?There are many reasons to test albumin. Your doctor may test albumin if s/he suspects liver injury or illness. Albumin can give an indication of your hydration and nutrition status. Unless this is ordered as a retest or for a specific reason, we recommend ordering this as part of a health test or adding it onto another panel.Health checkDiscover your risk factors for lifestyle diseases in time to do something about them.Liver or kidney check-upAlbumin is an important part of a kidney health panel.MonitoringMonitor changes to your blood values as you make lifestyle changes, supplement or undergo treatments.More informationSome drugs can increase serum albumin. These include anabolic steroids, androgens, growth hormones, and insulin. If you are receiving large amounts of intravenous fluids, the results of this test may be inaccurate.What do the results mean?Albumin results are evaluated alongside other test results.What causes low albumin?Albumin can be low in many different diseases and disorders and may indicate a need for further investigation. A slightly low albumin may be clinically insignificant, although albumin can be low in many different diseases and disorders and may indicate a need for further investigation. Some causes of low albumin include liver or kidney problems, hypothyroidism, inflammation, poor diet, shock and malnutrition as well as conditions that can cause malabsorption and digestion of protein, like low stomach acid, Crohn’s disease, celiac disease and chronic illness. Low albumin can also indicate oxidative stress and an increased need for vitamin C.Pregnancy and intravenous fluids can also decrease blood albumin levels by increasing the fluid volume inside blood vessels.What causes high albumin?Albumin can be high in many different diseases and disorders and may indicate a need for further investigation. In terms of lifestyle factors, slightly high albumin can be associated with dehydration, increasing blood concentration.More informationSome drugs can increase serum albumin. These include anabolic steroids, androgens, growth hormones, and insulin.  If you are receiving large amounts of intravenous fluids, the results of this test may be inaccurate.Values that are slightly outside the reference range can be normal. Reference ranges are not perfect and approximately 5% of healthy individuals may have results outside the reference range.InstructionsThe day before the testAvoid fatty foods and alcohol today.On the day of the testRemember to take your ID. with you when going to take a test.

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14 March 2023
Markers

ALP

ALP
What is ALP?ALP is an enzyme found throughout the body, and is mostly found in the liver, kidneys and digestive system. It is used for the analysis of liver and gallbladder problems. An ALP test is used to help detect liver disease or bone disorders. In conditions affecting the liver, damaged liver cells release ALP into the blood. ALP results are considered alongside the results of other tests. Some causes of elevated ALP are liver damage, increased bone cell activity, pregnancy, healing fractures and the use of certain medications. High values on other tests like bilirubin, AST (aspartate aminotransferase), GGT (Gamma Glutamyl transferase), 5'-nucleotidase or ALT (alanine aminotransferase) may confirm liver dysfunction.  If GGT or 5'-nucleotidase is normal and especially if calcium and phosphorus markers are abnormal, then the high ALP could be caused by a bone condition.Why test ALP?Unless this is ordered as a retest or for a specific reason, we recommend ordering this as part of a health test.Health checkDiscover your risk factors for lifestyle diseases in time to do something about them. Risk factors You want to know how your liver health is affected by your alcohol consumption, weight, virus exposure, or other lifestyle factors.MonitoringMonitor changes to your blood values as you make lifestyle changes, take supplements, or undergo treatments.What causes low ALP?Low ALP can be caused by zinc deficiency, malnutrition, magnesium deficiency, protein deficiency, blood transfusions. heart bypass surgery and oral contraceptive use.  Children and adolescents tend to have higher levels because of bone growth. What causes high ALP?High ALP usually signifies either liver damage or increased bone cell activity. High values on other tests like bilirubin, AST (aspartate aminotransferase), GGT (Gamma Glutamyl transferase), 5'-nucleotidase or ALT (alanine aminotransferase) often confirm liver involvement. If GGT or 5'-nucleotidase is normal and especially if calcium and phosphorus markers are abnormal, then the high ALP is probably caused by a bone condition.Moderately elevated ALP may result from other health conditions. InstructionsNo advance preparation is needed for this testThe day before the testAvoid fatty foods and alcohol today.On the day of the testRemember to take your ID with you when going to take a test. Arrive early and sit down quietly for 15 minutes before the test is taken.  

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14 March 2023
Markers

ALT

ALT
What is ALT?ALT (alanine aminotransferase) is an enzyme found mostly in liver and kidney cells. An ALT test measures the amount of this enzyme in the bloodstream. ALT is a useful test for the early detection of liver damage.Why test ALT?Unless this is ordered as a retest or for a specific reason, we recommend ordering this as part of a health test. Health checkDiscover your risk factors for lifestyle diseases in time to do something about them. Risk factorsYou want to know how your liver health is affected by your alcohol consumption, weight, virus exposure or other lifestyle factors.MonitoringMonitor changes to your blood values as you make lifestyle changes, supplement or undergo treatments.What causes low ALT?A low level of ALT in the bloodstream is the normal and expected result. Vitamin B6 deficiency and alcoholism can cause extremely low levels of ALT.What causes high ALT?Elevated levels are most often caused by liver problems. Very high ALT is usually caused by acute hepatitis, which in turn is often caused by a viral infection or heavy alcohol use, toxins, some medications, or autoimmunity.  This usually takes 1-6 months to return to normal.  fatty liver, liver dysfunction, excessive muscle breakdown or turnover, liver cell damage, obesity, alcohol consumption, and some other conditions can also cause very high ALT levels.More informationWhen the cells are injured or damaged, enzymes like ALT are released into the blood, making ALT a useful test for the early detection of liver damage.  This test may be used together with AST (aspartate aminotransferase) as included in a liver package or a comprehensive metabolic panel to assess liver function and possible liver diseases. Elevated ALT levels are increasingly common. Values that are slightly outside the reference range can be normal. Reference ranges are not perfect and approximately 5% of healthy individuals may have results outside the reference range.InstructionsThe day before the testAvoid fatty foods and alcohol today.On the day of the testRemember to take your I.D. with you.  

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14 March 2023
Markers

AMH

AMH
What is AMH (Anti-Mullerian Hormone)?AMH is a hormone produced by reproductive tissues.  This test is used, among other things, to evaluate ovarian function and IVF chances. It is the most reliable test of time-to-menopause.Why test AMH?Unless this is ordered as a retest or for a specific reason, we recommend ordering this as part of a health package.Evaluate FertilityAMH is used to evaluate ovarian function and to estimate egg reserve.IVF TreatmentAn AMH test may be necessary along with other hormone tests to evaluate likely responsiveness to treatment. PCOSWomen who have suspected polycystic ovaries (PCOS) may test AMH, which can be elevated due to the increased number of follicles.What causes low AMH?Negative to low levels of AMH are normal in females who are not of childbearing age. An AMH level that is lower than expected may suggest low egg reserve, poor egg quality or indicate that the ovaries are not functioning normally.  Women’s AMH levels naturally decline as they get older, so in younger women this may be a sign of premature low fertility. This may result in a reduced response to IVF treatment.Recent research has shown that women with low AMH levels (less than 0.7ng/ml don’t have a significantly lower chance of getting pregnant in a 12-month period than women with ‘normal’ hormone levels. This may be because egg quality is more important than egg quantity.  AMH levels are however strongly tied to time until menopause, so this test can determine whether a woman is at risk for early menopause. It may also help detect, alongside other tests, other potential reproductive problems such as polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS).Low AMH and/or a significant decline in AMH may suggest the imminent onset of menopause.  Raised AMH may be seen with PCOS but is not used to diagnose PCOS. It could even signify likely increased responsiveness to IVF and a need to monitor or alter treatment.AMH level also directly affects IVF success and egg freezing because both are reliant on the number of eggs doctors can retrieve from the ovaries.  A low AMH means that you may have a lower response to such treatments.What causes high AMH?Raised AMH may be seen with PCOS but is not used to diagnose PCOS. It could even signify likely increased responsiveness to IVF and a need to monitor or alter IVF treatment.A higher AMH level means that you have a higher number of eggs available than is normal for your age.  It may make it easier for you to get pregnant using IVF and increase the success of egg freezing; but there is no guarantee, and age seems to be the most important factor. More informationAMH can be taken at any time of the month because, unlike other female hormones, AMH does not fluctuate with a woman's monthly cycle. AMH is unaffected by oral contraceptives and pregnancy. InstructionsNo advance preparation is needed for this test.On the day of the testRemember to take your ID with you when going to take a test.  

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14 March 2023
Markers

Apo A/Apo B Ratio

Apo A/Apo B Ratio
APO A1/Apo B RatioOrdering both Apo A1 and Apo B tests gives you this ratio, which is sometimes used as an alternative to a total cholesterol/HDL ratio to evaluate the risk of developing cardiovascular disease.What do the test results mean?What causes low Apo A1 levels?Low levels of Apo A1 are associated with low levels of HDL, the so-called ‘good’ cholesterol, and impaired cholesterol clearance from the body. Lower Apo A1, combined with higher Apo B is associated with increased rates of cardiovascular disease. Having a higher level of Apo A1 is considered protective against cardiovascular illness. The ApoA1 to Apo B ratio is considered one of the most accurate ways to determine the risk of cardiovascular disease and can predict the risk of a heart attack no matter the cholesterol and triglyceride levels.Low levels of Apo A1 can be caused by some health conditions such as kidney disease, diabetes, obesity/overweight, certain medications, or by lifestyle choices such as smoking and poor diet. Genetic factors can also lead to deficiencies in Apo A1 (and thus low levels of HDL). People with these disorders tend to have abnormal lipid levels, including high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL – the "bad" cholesterol). Frequently, they have accelerated rates of atherosclerosis. These genetic disorders are the primary causes of low Apo A1.Changes in levels of Apo A-I may also be associated with other factors. The following may decrease Apo A1:• Chronic kidney disease• Use of drugs like androgens, beta-blockers, diuretics, and progestins (synthetic progesterone)• Smoking• Untreated diabetes• ObesityWhat causes high Apo A1 levels?High values may reduce the risk of heart and artery disease. The following may increase Apo A1:• Genetic factors, physical activity, and hormones• Moderate alcohol consumption• Medications like carbamazepine, estrogens, ethanol, lovastatin, niacin, oral contraceptives, phenobarbital, pravastatin, and simvastatin• Physical activity• Pregnancy• Weight loss• StatinsMore InformationValues that are slightly outside the reference range can be normal. Reference ranges are not perfect and approximately 5% of healthy individuals may have results outside the reference range.InstructionsThe day before the testAvoid fatty foods and alcohol todayOn the day of the testRemember to take your ID. with you when going to take a test.Arrive early and sit down quietly for 15 minutes before the test is taken.

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07 March 2023
Markers

Apolipoprotein A1 (2)

Apolipoprotein A1 (2)
Information about Apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 What is Apolipoprotein (Apo) A1?Apo A1 is a protein that is involved in lipid (fat) metabolism. It is the main protein component in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, higher levels of which seem to have health benefits in healthy individuals. Why test Apolipoprotein (Apo) A1?Apo A1 is a marker of heart health and risk of heart and artery disease and is included in many of our test packages. Health CheckDiscover your risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in time to do something about them. Health HistoryYour lifestyle, personal or family history suggests an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Chronic inflammation, elevated triglycerides, and high blood sugar are common risk factors. MonitoringMonitor changes to your blood values as you make lifestyle changes, supplement or undergo treatments.  What do the test results mean?What causes low Apo A1 levels?Low levels of Apo A1 are associated with low levels of HDL, the so-called ‘good’ cholesterol, and impaired cholesterol clearance from the body. Lower Apo A1, combined with higher Apo B is associated with increased rates of cardiovascular disease.  Having a higher level of Apo A1 is considered protective against cardiovascular disease. The ApoA1 to Apo B ratio is considered one of the most accurate ways to determine the risk of cardiovascular disease and can predict the risk of having a heart attack no matter the cholesterol and triglyceride levels.Low levels of Apo A1 can be caused by some health conditions such as kidney disease, diabetes, obesity/overweight, certain medications, or lifestyle choices such as smoking and poor diet. Genetic factors can also lead to deficiencies in Apo A1 (and thus low levels of HDL). People with these disorders tend to have abnormal lipid levels, including high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL – the "bad" cholesterol). Frequently, they have accelerated rates of atherosclerosis. These genetic disorders are the primary causes of low Apo A1. Changes in levels of Apo A-I may also be associated with other factors. The following may decrease Apo A1: chronic kidney disease, certain drugs (androgens, beta-blockers, diuretics, and progestins (synthetic progesterone)), smoking, untreated diabetes, and obesity.  What causes high Apo A1 levels?High values may reduce the risk of heart and artery disease.  The following may increase Apo A1: Genetic factors, physical activity, and hormones, moderate alcohol consumption, medications like carbamazepine, estrogens, ethanol, lovastatin, niacin, oral contraceptives, phenobarbital, pravastatin, and simvastatin, physical activity, pregnancy, weight loss, statins. More InformationValues that are slightly outside the reference range can be normal. Reference ranges are not perfect and approximately 5% of healthy individuals may have results outside the reference range. Instructions The day before the test Avoid fatty foods and alcohol today On the day of the test Remember to take your ID. with you when going to take a test. Arrive in good time and sit down quietly for 15 minutes before the test is taken.

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06 March 2023
Markers

Apolipoprotein B

Apolipoprotein B
Information about Apolipoprotein B Heart Health Marker What is Apolipoprotein (Apo) B?Apo B is a protein involved in lipid (fat) metabolism. Concentrations of Apo B tend to mirror those of LDL cholesterol. Many researchers now consider the ratio of Apo A1 to Apo B a more reliable predictor of cardiovascular disease than standard cholesterol analyses.Why test Apo B?N.B. Order Apo B together with Apo A1Health CheckDiscover your risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in time to do something about them.Health HistoryYour lifestyle, personal or family history suggests an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Chronic inflammation, elevated triglycerides, and high blood sugar are common risk factors.MonitoringMonitor changes to your blood values as you make lifestyle changes, supplement, or undergo treatments.What do the results mean?An increased ratio of Apo B to Apo A1 may indicate a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease.What causes low Apo B?A number of factors can cause low Apo B. Conditions that affect production of lipoproteins, their synthesis, and or packaging in the liver can decrease Apo B. Secondary causes include medications like estrogen (in post-menopausal women), lovastatin, simvastatin, niacin, and thyroxine, and health-related factors such as hyperthyroidism, cirrhosis, surgery, malnutrition, and weight loss.What causes high Apo B?Anything that leads to inflammation in the blood vessels affects Apo B. Causes include dietary factors, such as a diet higher in saturated fats, pregnancy, overconsumption of sugars, decreased clearing of LDL from the blood, health conditions like insulin resistance, diabetes, hypothyroidism, and medication use. Genetic disorders can directly cause abnormal Apo B levels.The Apo A1: Apo B ratio is considered one of the most accurate ways to determine the risk of cardiovascular disease and can predict the risk of a heart attack no matter your cholesterol and triglyceride levels. More informationThe Apo B test is used with other lipid tests to evaluate the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). New research suggests that the ratio of Apo A1 to Apo B is a reliable predictor of CVD.  Values that are slightly outside the reference range can still be normal. Approximately 5% of healthy individuals may have results outside the reference range. Genetic factors can elevate Apolipoprotein B. Instructions for this testThe day before the testAvoid fatty foods and alcohol today.On the day of the testRemember to take your ID. with you when going to take a test. Arrive early and sit down quietly for 15 minutes before taking this test.

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14 March 2023
Markers

AST

AST
What is AST? AST (aspartate aminotransferase) is an enzyme found mainly in the liver, heart, and skeletal muscle.  A blood test for AST is usually done to detect liver damage and disorders.  When these organs are damaged, the enzyme is released into the blood and blood values are raised. AST is a useful test for early detection of liver damage. AST does not have much significance when taken by itself.  It is often included in a comprehensive health or wellness panel to evaluate liver function, and is also used when liver disease or damage is suspected. Why test AST?Unless this is ordered as a retest or for a specific reason, we recommend ordering this as part of a health test.Health checkDiscover your risk factors for lifestyle diseases in time to do something about them. Risk factors You want to know how your liver health is affected by your alcohol consumption, weight, virus exposure, or other lifestyle factors.MonitoringMonitor changes to your blood values as you make lifestyle changes, take supplements, or undergo treatments.What causes low AST?A low level of AST in the bloodstream is the normal and expected result. Vitamin B6 deficiency, alcoholism, old age, or underlying health conditions such as liver, kidney or inflammatory diseases can cause extremely low AST.   What causes high AST?Elevated levels are most often caused by liver problems.  Liver toxicity from alcohol, drugs or other substances can also elevate levels, sometimes up to 100 times normal values. Viral hepatitis can take up to six months to return to normal. Elevated AST may indicate cirrhosis (scarring of the liver), muscle injury, heart problems, pancreatitis or mononucleosis (an infection caused by a virus called Epstein-Barr) or autoimmunity. However, if your results are not in the normal range this does not necessarily mean that you have a medical condition as a variety of factors may affect your results. These include older age, gender, an inflammatory diet void of nutrients, alcohol intake, smoking, and some medications.More informationAST and ALT are considered two of the most important tests to detect liver injury (although ALT is more liver-specific than AST, and AST is less likely to be raised). AST levels are used with the results of other tests, such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein, and bilirubin to help determine which form of liver disease is present.AST may be used to monitor those taking medications that are potentially toxic to the liver.  This test may be used together with ALT as part of a liver panel or comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) to assess liver function and possible liver diseases. Values that are slightly outside the reference range can be normal. Reference ranges are not perfect and approximately 5% of healthy individuals may have results outside the reference range.InstructionsThe day before the testAvoid fatty foods and alcohol today.On the day of the testRemember to take your ID. with you when going to take a test.  

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15 March 2023
Markers

Basophils

Basophils

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14 March 2023
Markers

Bilirubin

Bilirubin
What is bilirubin?Bilirubin is a waste product made by the normal breakdown of heme, a component of hemoglobin found in red blood cells (RBCs).  Bilirubin passes through the liver and is eventually excreted out of the body.  A bilirubin test measures levels of bilirubin in the blood to evaluate a person's liver function or to help diagnose anemias caused by the destruction of red blood cells (hemolytic anemia).Why test bilirubin?Unless this is ordered as a retest or for a specific reason, we recommend ordering this as part of a health test.Health checkDiscover your risk factors for lifestyle diseases in time to do something about them. Risk factorsYou want to know how your liver health is affected by your alcohol consumption, weight, virus exposure or other lifestyle factors.MonitoringMonitor changes to your blood values as you make lifestyle changes, supplement or undergo treatments.What causes low bilirubin?Low levels of bilirubin are usually considered clinically insignificant. Extremely low levels could be a sign of spleen insufficiency.What causes high bilirubin?Increased bilirubin is associated with a variety of medical disorders, from viral hepatitis to gallstones. Bilirubin is elevated in the blood in several liver and bile duct conditions. This results in skin yellowing and the whites of the eyes. The most common reason is bile flow blockage, known as cholestasis. Other factors include heavy metal burden and high cholesterol.  Gallstones can cause this blockage, preventing bilirubin from being excreted into stool or urine.Gilbert’s syndrome can also cause mildly elevated bilirubin. Gilbert’s syndrome is a common, harmless, overgrowth/dysbiosis inherited condition that can cause bilirubin to be temporarily elevated. Triggers include surgery, infection, dehydration, fasting, physical activity, and even menstruation.  Elevated bilirubin can also be a sign of oxidative stress and increased red blood cell destruction, liver dysfunction, polycythemia, thymus dysfunction.More informationValues that are slightly outside the reference range can be normal. Reference ranges are not perfect and approximately 5% of healthy individuals may have results outside the reference range.InstructionsNo advance preparation is required for this test.On the day of the testAlways take your ID with you when going for a test. Do not work out before going to do this test, as this may affect your results. Take this test before 10 am, as results can vary throughout the day. Arrive early and sit down quietly for 15 minutes before the test is taken.  

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14 March 2023
Markers

Blood Glucose

Blood Glucose
What is a blood glucose test?Glucose is a sugar with many important functions in the body.  When you eat, the different sugars in food are converted to glucose and used by the cells for energy.  Your glucose must be kept within a certain range, otherwise, it can cause health problems.  A blood glucose test measures glucose in the blood at the time of testing.Elevated blood glucose levels are most likely to be caused by diabetes, but other health conditions can also result in raised blood glucose. Interpretation depends on individual factors such as diabetes/insulin resistance status and medication. Test results differ if the test is fasting, non-fasting, or taken hours after a meal. Results can indicate whether a person is in the normal range, the prediabetes range, or already suffers from diabetes. Unless this is ordered as a retest or for a specific reason, we recommend ordering this as part of a health test.Why test blood glucose?Blood glucose is an important part of a metabolic panel. Insulin resistance, pre-diabetes and even diabetes can often be completely reversed with lifestyle changes.Health checkDiscover your risk factors for lifestyle diseases in time to do something about them. MonitoringMonitor changes to your blood values as you make lifestyle changes or undergo treatments.InstructionsDo not eat or drink anything except water for at least 10 (preferably 12) hours before taking this test.What causes low blood glucose?Low glucose levels are most common in diabetics who are taking insulin. This can be avoided by monitoring glucose regularly and through a consistent medical and lifestyle routine. Other causes include vomiting/diarrhea, excess alcohol consumption, excess insulin (hyperinsulinism), low-carbohydrate diet, medicines and diseases of the liver, heart, pancreas, and kidney.What causes high blood glucose?High blood glucose (known as serum glucose) is typically caused by dietary and lifestyle factors (poor sleep, frequent snacking, overconsumption of processed flour and sugar, some sweeteners, overeating, obesity, inactivity) and can be a sign of insulin resistance or diabetes, but other factors and health conditions can also result in raised blood glucose including menstruation, dehydration, increased need for thiamine (vitamin B1), fatty liver and metabolic syndrome.Other health conditions that can increase blood glucose include pancreatitis, hyperthyroidism, Cushing syndrome, and acute stress (in response to trauma or illness).  Interpretation of this test depends on individual factors such as diabetes/insulin resistance status and medication. Test results differ if the test is fasting, non-fasting or taken hours after a meal.  Results can indicate whether a person is in the normal range, the prediabetes range or already suffers from diabetes.More informationInsulin, a hormone excreted by the pancreas, helps the body’s cells use or store blood glucose from food. If your body is not able to produce insulin, or insulin is produced but your body’s ability to use it is impaired, as in insulin resistance, glucose remains in your bloodstream. This can result in insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes. Many different factors, including medication, physical activity, diet, and other biological and environmental factors, affect your blood glucose levels.  These are not always easy to control. Chronic high blood sugar can lead to cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, blindness, neurological damage, and ulcers.  Symptoms of poor blood glucose management include fatigue, poor mental capacity, weakness, weight loss, excess thirst, and frequent urination.  Some people have no symptoms at all. In the worst case, both high and low blood sugars can lead to unconsciousness.This test should not be used alone to detect the risk of future diabetes and heart disease.  No test should be used alone to determine whether someone has a blood sugar problem.  It should ideally be used with HBA1C, triglycerides, C-peptide, and homocysteine. InstructionsThe day beforeDo not eat or drink anything except water for at least 10 (preferably 12) hours before taking this test.On the dayRemember to take your ID with you when going to take a test.Arrive early and sit down quietly for 15 minutes before the test is taken.  

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08 March 2023
Markers

Blood Group

Blood Group
Information about blood group What is a blood group test?The results tell which blood type you have (A, B, AB, or O) and if you are Rh negative or positive.  Your healthcare provider will know what blood or blood components you can safely receive.Why test your blood group?PregnancyYou are or plan to become pregnant and want to know your blood group. DiscoverYour blood group can be helpful to know if you need a blood transfusion. Blood type dietYou want to follow a ‘blood type’ diet.  Whilst popular, there is no evidence to support this diet.What do the results mean? The results tell you which blood type you have (A, B, AB, or O) and if you are Rh negative or positive. Your healthcare provider will know what blood or blood components you can safely receive.More information Your blood type (or blood group) depends on the types you inherited from your parents.  Blood typing can also reveal whether you have a substance called Rh factor on the surface of your red blood cells.  If you do, you are Rh+ (positive).  Those without it are considered Rh- (negative). This is very important during pregnancy and childbirth.Instructions There is no need to do any advance preparation for this test. Remember to take your I.D. with you when going to take a test.

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14 March 2023
Markers

C-Peptide

C-Peptide
What is C-peptide?This test measures the amount of C-peptide in the blood. C-peptide and insulin are produced in the pancreas at the same rate and released into the bloodstream in equal amounts when insulin is required in response to increased glucose levels. C-peptide stays in the bloodstream longer than insulin, making it a useful marker of insulin production. It can be used to differentiate between Type I and Type II diabetes.Low or no C-peptide means that your pancreas is producing little or no insulin. This could be normal if you have not eaten recently, as your blood sugar and insulin levels are naturally low when fasting.Why test C-peptide?Health CheckDiscover your risk factors for lifestyle diseases in time to do something about them.Health HistoryA family or personal history of blood sugar problems such as diabetes, smoking, drinking, being overweight, and/or poor diet.MonitoringTo monitor or evaluate the impact of your supplements or see how much to take.What causes low C-peptide levels?Low C-peptide levels suggest that your pancreas isn’t working well, and your body isn’t making enough insulin. Possible reasons include diabetes Type I and Type II, insulin therapy, low blood glucose in diabetics on insulin, long periods of fasting or starvation, and poor pancreas function from, for example, pancreatitis. What causes high C-peptide levels?A high level of C-peptide usually indicates a high level of insulin production, either in response to a high blood glucose caused by glucose intake and/or by insulin resistance. Higher than expected C-peptide levels can be caused by eating a high-carbohydrate meal, insulin resistance, obesity, kidney disease, cortisol excess due to Cushing syndrome and occasionally insulin-producing tumours, which are usually benign. Some medications increase C-peptide, including diabetes medications and glucocorticoids. Pregnancy can increase C-peptide levels.More information Repeat C-peptide tests should be undertaken by the same laboratory using the same method. For instance, if you have previously had a test done at Karolinska you should repeat the test at Karolinska.Instructions The day before Do not eat or drink anything except water for at least 10 (preferably 12) hours before taking this test.On the dayRemember to take I.D. with you when going to take a test. Arrive early and sit down quietly for 15 minutes before taking a test.

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13 March 2023
Markers

Calcium

Calcium
Calcium is one of the most abundant and important minerals in the body.  It is essential for cell signalling and the proper functioning of nerves, muscles and the heart. A calcium test measures the amount of calcium in the blood. Only 1% of calcium is found in the blood, and this test is not used to check dietary calcium sufficiency.Unless this is ordered as a retest or for a specific reason, we recommend ordering this as part of a health test.Why test calcium?Health checkDiscover your risk factors for lifestyle diseases in time to do something about them. SymptomsWhen you have symptoms of a disorder affecting the kidneys, bones, thyroid, parathyroid or nerves or when you have symptoms of increased or decreased calcium.MonitoringMonitor changes to your blood values as you make lifestyle changes or undergo treatments.What do the results mean?Blood calcium test results do not indicate levels of bone calcium.  Blood calcium test results indicate how much calcium is circulating in the blood.  A normal total or ionised calcium result together with other normal laboratory results generally means that a person's calcium metabolism is normal and blood levels are being appropriately regulated.What causes low calcium?The most common cause is low blood protein levels, particularly low albumin. This can result from liver disease or malnutrition and may be caused by alcoholism, eating disorders, and other conditions. Hypoparathyroidism, decreased levels of vitamin D, low stomach acid levels, magnesium deficiency, pancreatitis, and extreme deficiency in dietary calcium can cause low calcium levels.What causes high calcium?Hyperparathyroidism, underactive thyroid, and cancer can all increase calcium levels in the blood.  Other causes include TB, sarcoidosis, excess vitamin D, the use of certain medications and infections.  Some medications like thiazide diuretic drugs, lithium, and tamoxifen can increase calcium in the blood.More informationBlood and urine calcium measurements cannot tell how much calcium is in the bones. Another test called a bone density or "Dexa" scan is used to test this.Values that are slightly outside the reference range can be normal. Reference ranges are not perfect and approximately 5% of healthy individuals may have results outside the reference range.InstructionsNo advance preparation is needed for this test.On the day of the testRemember to take I.D. with you when going to take a test. Arrive early and sit down quietly for 15 minutes before the test is taken.  

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08 March 2023
Markers

CCP Antibody

CCP Antibody
Information about ACP antibodies (a) What is an ACPA test?Cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies are a type of antibody that can be present in the blood in those with an autoimmune disease known as Rheumatoid arthritis (RA). They are directed against cyclic citrullinated peptides (CCP).  These antibodies can be elevated in someone with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A CCP antibody test test detects and measures anti-CCP antibodies in the blood. It is used alongside a rheumatoid factor test to give a picture of RA risk and prognosis.Why test ACPA?Unless this is ordered as a retest or for a specific reason, we recommend ordering this as part of a health test.SymptomsYou have symptoms of RA and the rheumatoid factor test was negative.Family historyYou have a family history of rheumatoid arthritis or similar autoimmune diseases.Health checkDiscover your risk factors for lifestyle diseases in time to do something about them.What do the results mean?RA is a clinical diagnosis made by considering symptoms in conjunction with tests. A doctor can diagnose you with rheumatoid arthritis even if both tests are negative if there are clear symptoms. Not everyone with rheumatoid arthritis has CCP antibodies in their bloodstream.The ACPA/CCP antibody test can help diagnose RA in someone who has joint inflammation with symptoms that suggest but do not yet meet the criteria of RA.  It may be ordered along with a rheumatoid factor (RF) test, or if the RF result is negative.NegativeA negative CCP test means that you do not have antibodies against CCP in your bloodstream.PositiveA positive CCP test means that you have antibodies against CCP in your bloodstream. The ACPA/CCP antibody test can help diagnose RA in someone who has joint inflammation with symptoms that suggest but do not yet meet the criteria of RA and may be ordered along with RF or if the RF result is negative.ACP antibodies are specific for rheumatoid arthritis. A positive test means a likely diagnosis of RA.  The presence of these antibodies may also predict the future development of RA and can be detected in healthy individuals many years before the onset of clinical or diagnosed RA.  However, these antibodies are not found in everyone with RA.Using this test alongside the rheumatoid factor test gives the most complete picture of RA status and risk. Please note that rheumatoid arthritis is a clinical diagnosis, so it is very important to discuss these results and your symptoms with a rheumatologist.InstructionsNo advance preparation is needed for this test.On the day of the testRemember to take your I.D. with you when going to take a test.Do not work out before going to do this test, as this may affect your results. Take this test before 10 am, as results can vary throughout the day. Arrive early and sit down quietly for 15 minutes before the test is taken.Other informationThis test is usually done alongside a rheumatoid factor test (link to below text) for a full analysis. This analysis is done daily. You can expect the results within 2-3 days.  

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08 March 2023
Markers

CDT

CDT
What is CDT (carbohydrate deficient transferrin)?The CDT test is a sensitive biomarker that tracks heavy alcohol consumption over the longer term. The results of this test will give an indication of the extent of recent alcohol consumption.If you drink steadily and heavily (4-6 units of alcohol per day) over several weeks, the percentage of CDT increases. You will continues as long as you continuously drink heavily. Occasional or binge drinking also raises CDT levels, though this depends on the frequency and the quantity consumed.If you reduce your alcohol consumption, your CDT levels will fall after a few weeks. CDT is a specific test, meaning other substances do not affect the test result. CDT is used as an official test to evaluate harmful alcohol use. Why Test CDT?Job RequirementSome employers require you to take this test before starting a new job.Official RequirementYou may need this alongside a GGT test to satisfy an authority, for example the Swedish Transport Authority.What do the results mean?CDT test results indicate the extent of recent alcohol consumption when combined with other tests, such as GGT.Low/NormalA low test result indicates that you have not been drinking excessively over the last few weeks.HighAn elevated CDT indicates excess drinking for the last few weeks or months.InstructionsAvoid drinking alcohol the night before taking this test.The day of the testAlways take your ID with you when going for a test. Arrive early, and sit down quietly for 15 minutes before the test is taken.

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14 March 2023
Markers

Chloride

Chloride
What is chloride?Chloride is one of the most important electrolytes in the blood. It helps keep the amount of fluid inside and outside of your cells in balance.Why test chloride? Unless this is ordered as a retest or for a specific reason, we recommend ordering this as part of a health test.What causes low chloride?Low chloride (hypochloremia) means that you have less chloride in the blood than expected (for your age and gender). Causes of low chloride include insufficient salt intake, excessive chloride loss through the digestive system or urine, excess fluid intake, and health conditions that cause fluid retention, such as congestive heart failure, metabolic alkalosis,  and electrolyte imbalance.What causes high chloride?High chloride (hyperchloremia) means that you have more chloride in the blood than expected (for your age and gender).  Excess salt in the diet, kidney inflammation, medications, chloride-rich food, some health conditions, dehydration, stress, and certain therapies can all increase chloride levels. More informationInstructionsNo advance preparation is needed for this test.On the day of the testRemember to take your I.D. with you when going to take a test.  Arrive early and sit down quietly for 15 minutes before the test is taken.  

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14 March 2023
Markers

Cortisol

Cortisol
What is Cortisol?Cortisol is the primary stress hormone. It regulates many important processes in the body.  Nordic Wellth’s blood cortisol test is a single cortisol reading taken between 7 and 8 am.The results of cortisol testing need to be interpreted in the light of other test results as well as signs and symptoms. Cortisol levels are usually very low at bedtime and highest just after waking. Studies have shown that people with optimal cortisol levels throughout the day often feel healthier. A normal cortisol pattern is altered if a person works rotating shifts and sleeps at different times on different days. If a person has been stressed for a longer period or is under acute stress, the cortisol rhythm may deviate from the norm. Bodily rhythms and cortisol patterns‘Stress’ refers to things we typically think of as stressors, like managing family life, work, deadlines, intense studying, deaths, and financial problems, and factors like overeating, poor nutrition and consumption of inflammatory foods, frequent infections, injury, trauma, obesity, chronic inflammation, depression, nutrient deficiencies, exposure to environmental toxicants, pregnancy, and chronic illness.  Cortisol is a key part of our natural stress response pathway, which is critical to our health.  Collectively known as the HPA Axis, the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, and the adrenal glands work together to regulate functions like the stress response, mood, digestion, the immune system, metabolism and energy levels.  The HPA Axis controls critical functions including digestion, heart rate, and blood pressure. Chronically elevated or low levels of cortisol increase the risk of several diseases. There are several factors that can either increase or decrease the normal, healthy stress response.Why test cortisol?Health checkDiscover your risk factors for lifestyle diseases in time to do something about them.MonitoringMonitor changes to your blood values as you make lifestyle changes or undergo treatments.Health conditionCortisol can affect other health conditions, such as thyroid disease.What do the results mean?Your results will tell you how much cortisol is in your blood at the time of the test. The results will tell you if your cortisol is in the expected range.Cortisol is normally very low in the evening and at the highest in the morning just after waking. This may not be true of everyone, for instance in people who work irregular hours.InstructionsThe day beforeNo advance preparation is needed for this test.  Try to go to bed at the usual time and avoid stressful activities.On the dayThis test should be taken in the early morning between 7 and 8 am after a normal night’s rest.Remember to take I.D. with you when going to take a test. Arrive early and sit down quietly for 15 minutes before taking a test.  

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12 March 2023
Markers

Creatine Kinase

Creatine Kinase
What is Creatine Kinase (CK)?Creatine kinase (CK) is an enzyme found in the heart, brain, skeletal muscle and other bodily tissues.  CK increases in the blood in the presence of muscle damage. This test measures blood levels of creatine kinase.Why test Creatine Kinase?Muscle DamageTo detect and monitor muscle damage.SymptomsIf you have muscle weakness, muscle aches, and/or dark urine and your healthcare practitioner suspects muscle damage. This test is sometimes used in the case of persistent muscle injury.What Causes Low Creatine Kinase?Causes of low or lower creatine kinase can include muscle atrophy due to lack of exercise, malnutrition (especially protein insufficiency), extreme weight loss, liver problems, shock, dehydration, illness or aging, inflammation in autoimmune disease, pregnancy, and some types of cancer.What Causes High Creatine Kinase?When muscle tissues are damaged, creatine kinase seeps into the blood. Thus, high blood levels of creatine kinase indicate tissue damage from e.g. stroke, heart attack or injury, but not the cause of the damage.  Moderately increased CK levels can be normal in African populations and levels can temporarily increase after strenuous exercise.Healthy people sometimes have higher CK levels. Exercise and medicines can temporarily elevate levels. Underlying health problems that can increase creatine kinase are many and range from hypothermia to diabetes.A value of 100 times normal levels is a sign of rhabdomyolysis. Normal CK levels may indicate that there has not been muscle damage or that it occurred several days prior to testing. People of African descent can have significantly higher CK levels than other populations.InstructionsNo advance preparation is needed for this test.On the day of the testRemember to take I.D. with you when going to take a test. Arrive early and sit down quietly for 15 minutes before taking a test.

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13 March 2023
Markers

Creatinine

Creatinine
What is Creatinine?Creatinine is a waste product that comes from the normal wear and tear on muscles of the body. Everyone has creatinine in their bloodstream.  Creatinine can be used as part of a panel of tests to evaluate kidney status. It is often tested alongside sodium and potassium.Why test creatinine?Unless this is ordered as a retest or for a specific reason, we recommend ordering this as part of a health test.Health checkDiscover your risk factors for lifestyle diseases in time to do something about them.Lifestyle factorsYou drink a lot of alcohol and/or eat a diet low in nutrient-rich foods such as fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, and beans.MonitoringMonitor changes to your blood values as you make lifestyle changes, take supplements or medication.What causes low creatinine?Some causes of low or lower creatinine can include muscle atrophy, Malnutrition (especially protein insufficiency), extreme weight loss, liver problems, pregnancy, shock, dehydration, and some diseases.What causes high creatinine? The underlying conditions that may cause symptoms are those which affect kidney function, such as kidney disease, benign prostate hyperplasia, urinary tract congestion, diabetes, hyper and hypothyroidism, and high blood pressure. Symptoms of these include darker urine, puffy eyes, feet or face, back pain, fatigue, low fever, headache, confusion, and reduced urination.More informationInstructionsThere is no need to do any advance preparation for this test.On the day of the testRemember to take I.D. with you when going to take a test.

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14 March 2023
Markers

CRP, high-sensitivity

CRP, high-sensitivity
What is hsCRP?C-reactive protein (CRP) is a protein that is produced by the liver in response to inflammation, infection, and after surgery or trauma.  A high-sensitivity CRP test (hsCRP) can identify even low levels of inflammation.Why test high-sensitive CRP?Unless this is ordered as a retest or for a specific reason, we recommend ordering this as part of a health test.Health checkDiscover your risk factors for lifestyle diseases in time to do something about them. Recent studies suggest a link between hs-CRP and the risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome.Lifestyle FactorsYou eat a poor diet low in nutrient-dense foods, such as fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, and beans.Health HistoryYou have a history of the inflammatory condition(s).MonitoringMonitor changes to your blood values as you make lifestyle changes or take supplements.What causes low hs-CRP?A low level of hsCRP is normal and desired. Research shows that you are at low risk of developing cardiovascular disease if your hs-CRP level is lower than 1.0 mg/L.What causes high hs-CRP?A higher level of hs-CRP in healthy individuals means that you have a higher amount of this inflammatory marker in your blood. A higher level can predict an increased risk of a future heart attack, stroke, and artery disease, even when lipid markers are normal.The American Heart Association (AHA) and U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have defined the following risk groups:   Low risk: less than 1.0 mg/L Average risk: 1.0 to 3.0 mg/L High risk: above 3.0 mg/L A result over 10 mg/L may suggest the need for further testing to determine the cause of such significant inflammation.It is important to note that the overall evaluation process for heart disease should include a wider panel of tests including cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and other factors such as high blood pressure, smoking, and diabetes.More informationNonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, e.g., aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen) or statins may reduce blood levels of CRP.  Anti-inflammatory drugs and statins may help to reduce inflammation and thus CRP levels. Women on hormone replacement therapy have been shown to have elevated hs-CRP levels.InstructionsThe day beforeIf you are going to take a lipid panel alongside hsCRP, you need to fast, consuming nothing but water for at least 10 (preferably 12) hours.You should be healthy, with no recent injuries, illnesses, infections, or inflammation. If you have any of these, it is best to postpone the test as any recent illness, tissue injury, infection, or other general inflammation will raise the amount of CRP and give a falsely elevated estimate of risk.Otherwise, no advance preparation is needed for this test.On the day of the testAlways take your ID with you when going for a test.  Arrive early and sit down quietly for 15 minutes before the test is taken.  

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08 March 2023
Markers

Cystatin C

Cystatin C
What is cystatin C?Cystatin C is a protein that is produced throughout the body. A cystatin C test is used to help evaluate kidney function, and it plays many other roles in health, including its role in predicting new-onset diabetes or deteriorating cardiovascular disease.Unlike creatinine, cystatin C is not significantly affected by muscle mass (hence, neither sex nor age), race, or diet.Why test cystatin C?Unless this is ordered as a retest or for a specific reason, we recommend ordering this as part of a health test.Health checkDiscover your risk factors for lifestyle diseases in time to do something about them.Lifestyle factorsYou drink a lot of alcohol and/or eat a diet low in nutrient-rich foods such as fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, and beans.MonitoringMonitor changes to your blood values as you make lifestyle changes, or take supplements or medication.What causes low cystatin C?LowYou have a lower level of Cystatin C than expected in your bloodstream.What causes high cystatin C?A high level of Cystatin C in the blood corresponds to a decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and is associated with kidney dysfunction. Cystatin C should remain steady in the blood if the kidneys are working efficiently and the GFR is normal. An imbalance of Cystatin C can also occur with normal aging, due to unhealthy lifestyle factors or some chronic diseases. People with osteoporosis have elevated Cystatin C , as do those with hyperthyroidism and diabetes. Recent studies suggest that increased levels of cystatin C may also be associated with an increased risk of heart disease, heart failure, and mortality. Scientists are still trying to understand the relationship between Cystatin C and these conditions.If both your Cystatin C and your hsCRP are high, this might indicate inflammation. If you want to rule out systemic inflammation, we recommend testing other inflammatory markers such as ESR, TNF alpha, IL-6, fibrinogen and homocysteine (preferably together with folate and B). More informationInstructionsNo advance preparation is needed for this test.On the day of the testRemember to take I.D. with you when going to take a test.  Arrive early and sit down quietly for 15 minutes before taking the test. 

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08 March 2023
Markers

DHEAS

DHEAS
What is DHEAS?DHEAS is a hormone produced in the adrenal glands. It is converted to testosterone and estrogen. DHEAS is measured to evaluate adrenal function and certain adrenal tumours, signs of imbalanced hormones or excess facial and body hair in girls and women, or early puberty in boys. It may also be used to investigate symptoms like tiredness, weakness, & weight loss.Why test DHEAS?Health checkDiscover your risk factors for lifestyle diseases in time to do something about them.MonitoringMonitor changes to your blood values as you make lifestyle changes, supplement or undergo treatments.SymptomsIf you have signs and/or symptoms that may be due to the presence or too much male hormone.More informationWhat do the results mean?DHEAS results are evaluated alongside other test results.What causes low DHEAS?Low concentrations of DHEA-S could be caused by adrenal dysfunction or hypopituitarism, or a condition that causes decreased levels of the pituitary hormones that regulate the production and secretion of adrenal hormones. Normal DHEA-S concentrations, along with normal concentrations of other androgens, may indicate that the adrenal gland is functioning normally or (more rarely) that an adrenal tumour or cancer present is not secreting hormones.What causes high DHEAS?High levels of DHEA-S are common in women with PCOS. It could also indicate adrenal cancer or adrenal hyperplasia. Increased concentrations of DHEA-S are not diagnostic of a specific condition; they usually indicate the need for further testing to pinpoint the cause of the hormone imbalance.More informationValues that are slightly outside the reference range can be normal. Reference ranges are not perfect and approximately 5% of healthy individuals may have results outside the reference range.InstructionsThe day before the testAvoid fatty foods and alcohol today.On the day of the testRemember to take your ID. with you when going to take a test.

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12 January 2021
Markers

Eosinophils

Eosinophils

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15 March 2023
Markers

Erythrocyte

Erythrocyte

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15 March 2023
Markers

Essential Fatty Acids

Essential Fatty Acids
What are Essential Fatty Acids (EFA)?Essential fatty acids are important fats that your body requires to function properly, particularly during pregnancy and lactation and in the prevention of disease.  They are noted as essential because they must be obtained from the diet – the body cannot produce them. Many people do not eat enough healthy fatty acids.Well-absorbed omega-3 comes from oily fish and microalgae, so vegans and vegetarians who do not supplement are most likely to have low levels.  Individual differences in metabolism, absorption, and genetics make it impossible to be sure what your score is without testing.About this testThis omega-3 test measures the levels of EPA and DHA in red blood cells. This is the world-leading essential fatty acids test that has been used in hundreds of clinical trials. It is one of only three labs in the world that can officially be used to calculate the omega-3 index tested in clinical trials.More InformationThere are three main types of omega-3:Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) come mainly from fish, so they are sometimes called marine omega-3s. EPA and DHA are the most important fatty acids for heart disease prevention.ALA (alpha-linolenic acid), another omega-3 fatty acid, is found in plant sources such as nuts and seeds. Essential fatty acids become incorporated into all the body’s tissues, including the heart. The omega-3 index invented by Dr. William Harris and cardiologist Dr. Clemens Von Schacky is a clinically-validated, patent-pending measure of the essential fatty acids EPA+DHA inside the red blood cells.  The omega-3 index is an independently verified, clinically studied risk factor for heart disease.  It is supported by over 90 clinical trials published in international journals and is now considered the analytical standard for fatty acid testing.Apart from disease risk, your omega-3 index is particularly important when pregnant and breastfeeding.  More than 1 million people worldwide have measured their Omega-3 Index with this test. It has been used in large, NIH-funded population studies.Why test Essential Fatty Acids?Health CheckDiscover your risk factors for lifestyle diseases in time to do something about them.MonitoringTo monitor or evaluate the impact of your supplements or see how much to take.Health HistoryA family or personal history of heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, mental health issues, joint problems, smoking, drinking, or a poor diet.Conception, Pregnancy, and BreastfeedingYou are pregnant, breastfeeding, or trying to conceive.What do the results mean?The optimal omega-3 index is 8-11%. An optimal omega-3 index means that 8-11% of the fatty acids in red cell membranes are comprised of EPA and DHA. Persons tested using the omega-3 index often have a substantially lower score: around 4%. Compared with this lower omega-3 index, an optimal index of between 8 and 11% results in: Lower risk for cardiovascular diseases, like myocardial infarction, cardiac arrhythmias, sudden cardiac death, or congestive heart failure. Lower risk of premature birth and better chances for optimal brain development and brain function in the newborn. Lower probability of psychiatric diseases like ADHD, ADD, anxiety, OCD, or depression.  Lower probability for age-related neurodegenerative disease and other cognitive impairments.  Possibly lower risk for other diseases InstructionsThe day before the testDo not eat or drink anything except water for at least 10 (but preferably 12) hours before taking the test.On the day of the testRemember to take your ID with you to the lab

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14 March 2023
Markers

Estrogen

Estrogen
Estrogen is a sex hormone found in both men and women.  Estradiol is one of the most important estrogens.  Estrogens affect the liver, bone, nervous system, cardiovascular system, and immune system and are important for fertility and bone development. Estradiol tests are used to detect a deficiency or excess in a woman and to help diagnose a variety of conditions associated with this imbalance.For a more comprehensive test that includes sex hormones and metabolites, stress hormones and metabolites, and melatonin, we recommend dried urine (Dutch) test.Why test Estradiol?We only recommend testing estrogen alone as a re-test unless you have a specific reason to test your estradiol levels. Some reasons to test estrogen include:MonitoringMonitor hormone treatments for fertility treatment or menopause.Health CheckLifestyle and dietary changes can help with hormone imbalances. If you have menstrual problems like a lack of periods or heavy bleeding, we can work with a doctor to determine whether hormones or other treatments are needed.Evaluate Ovarian function, menopausal symptoms, menstrual abnormalities like lack of periods, and heavy bleeds.Suspected menopauseConfirm signs of menopause (select estrogen and FSH, or the Dutch test).What does the result mean?The meaning of the test result will depend on your age and gender. Taking estrogen medication can increase estrogen levels. Older women taking estrogen may have higher levels than younger women taking estrogen, which may be because older women eliminate estrogen medications more slowly. Obesity and excess weight can increase estrogen production. Other causes of elevated estrogen include liver disease, hyperthyroidism, and some tumours. High estrogen can increase the risk of certain chronic diseases including breast and ovarian cancer. More information                Estrogen can also protect skeletal muscles from damage during exercise.  There are several advantages of physical exercises, such as lower blood pressure and lower blood fats, as this boosts the endogenous production of estrogen.  Physical activity is particularly important for older women as estrogen levels drop with age.InstructionsWait two days after taking an estrogen patch, or two to four hours after taking estrogen orally or applying estrogen gel to take this test.On the dayRemember to take I.D. with you when going to take a test.    

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12 March 2023
Markers

Ferritin

Ferritin
What is Ferritin?Ferritin is a protein that stores iron.  As the main way your body stores iron, it is a surrogate marker for iron stored in the body’s organs, as well as an inflammatory disease marker.7-8 % of women and 1-3% of men in the West have anemia, whilst 25% have low iron.  Pregnant women and those with heavy periods or injuries can lose 30-50 mg of iron per day, which quickly depletes iron stores if they are not replenished. Long-distance runners have an increased risk of low ferritin. Why test ferritin?Unless this is ordered as a retest or for a specific reason, we recommend ordering this as part of a health test.Health CheckDiscover your risk factors for lifestyle diseases in time to do something about them. SymptomsIncluding unexplained fatigue, dizziness, chronic headaches, and unexplained weakness.MonitoringMonitor changes to your blood values as you make lifestyle changes, supplement or undergo treatments.Health HistoryA personal or Family history of anemia or excess ironHeavy PeriodsWomen who have heavy periods are more likely to suffer from low iron levels.What causes low ferritin?Iron deficiency anemia is the main cause of low ferritin. Ferritin tests are evaluated in the light of other iron tests.What causes high ferritin?Inflammatory processes, excess iron consumption, and iron overload can all cause high ferritin.More informationIron deficiency (anemia) and excess (hemochromatosis) are both very common and underdiagnosed disorders that can cause serious health problems if not detected early enough.The ferritin test is ordered to assess a person's iron stores in the body.  The test is usually ordered along with serum iron and transferrin or TIBC to detect the presence and severity of iron deficiency or excess iron.Ferritin levels can be elevated in people with inflammation, liver disease, chronic infection, autoimmune disorders, and some types of cancer. Ferritin should not be analysed when you have an infection or acute inflammation, and other factors should be taken into account when analysing the results.Values that are slightly outside the reference range can be normal. Reference ranges are not perfect and approximately 5% of healthy individuals may have results outside the reference range.InstructionsThe day before the testIf you take iron supplements, avoid them for 24 hours before doing this test.One the day of the testAre you sick? If so, it may be a good idea to postpone this test. Remember to take I.D. with you when going to take a test.  Take this test before 10am, as iron levels vary throughout the day. If you are a menstruating woman, make a note of the day of your cycle on the day of the test.  This may be helpful later.    

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13 March 2023
Markers

Fibrinogen

Fibrinogen
What is Fibrinogen?Fibrinogen is a protein essential for blood clot formation. It is also an inflammatory biomarker associated with cardiovascular disease and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) (Yu et al., 2018). Along with other cardiac risk markers, such as hsCRP, it can help to determine a person’s risk of cardiovascular disease.Why test fibrinogen? Unless this is ordered as a retest or for a specific reason, we recommend ordering this as part of a health test.Health CheckDiscover your risk factors for lifestyle diseases, in time to do something about them.Lifestyle factorsYou eat a poor diet low in nutrient-rich foods, such as fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds and beans.Health historyYou have or have had cardiovascular disease and would like to do a more comprehensive panel of tests.MonitoringMonitor changes to your blood values as you make lifestyle changes or take supplements.What do the results mean?Fibrinogen results are reported as the concentration of fibrinogen in the blood.  Normal fibrinogen activity usually reflects normal clotting ability.What causes low fibrinogen?Significantly decreased fibrinogen activity may be the result of decreased or dysfunctional fibrinogen and may impair the body’s ability to form a stable blood clot. If fibrinogen is chronically low, your doctor will want to evaluate you for other health conditions. Low fibrinogen can be caused by acute trauma, malnutrition, blood loss, medication and liver conditions.What causes high fibrinogen?Fibrinogen is an acute phase reactant and rises in inflammatory conditions or tissue damage.  Elevated fibrinogen can signify inflammation or tissue damage, but not what is causing it. Chronically elevated levels may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.  Elevated levels can be due to stress, acute infection, coronary heart disease, cancer, stroke, trauma, smoking, pregnancy, cold temperatures, obesity and inflammatory disorders. Smokers with diabetes are at particularly high risk of developing higher levels.Other informationPregnancy and acute inflammatory processes can temporarily increase fibrinogen. In this case fibrinogen levels should return to normal by themselves once the underlying condition has been resolved. Other inflammatory markers that can be valuable in the context of investigating if you have systemic inflammation are hsCRP, TNF alpha, IL-6, ferritin, ESR and homocysteine (preferably together with folate and vitamin B12).Cholesterol medications may reduce fibrinogen levels. Improving cholesterol levels through diet may also help to normalize fibrinogen levels. Fish oil and dietary fibre have been shown to reduce fibrinogen levels in several clinical trials. Several studies have shown that regular exercise can lower fibrinogen levels. Studies suggest that strenuous exercise may be particularly effective. B vitamins, especially B6, B9 (folate), and B12, help to breakdown fibrinogen by lowering homocysteine levels. Never start a supplementation regime without first talking to a nutritionist or doctor.  Some other dietary factors have been proposed to be linked to higher fibrinogen levels but none of them have strong evidence to support them.InstructionsNo advance preparation is needed for this test.On the day of the testRemember to take your ID with you when going to take a test. Do not work out before going to do this test, as this may affect your results. Take this test before 10 am, as results can vary throughout the day. Arrive in good time and sit down quietly for 15 minutes before the test is taken. 

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13 March 2023
Markers

Folate

Folate
What is folate?Vitamin B9 (folate) is a water-soluble essential vitamin that you must get from your diet. Folate is required for normal red blood cell (RBC) formation, repair and development of tissues and cells, and synthesis of DNA. Folate is especially important for pregnant women because a deficiency can lead to defects in the growing baby.Folate is required, along with vitamin B12 (cobalamin) and Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), to keep homocysteine (an amino acid that is harmful if too high in the blood) in check and for the formation of so-called methyl groups, which are involved in many bodily processes.Why test folate (vitamin B9)?Unless this is ordered as a retest or for a specific reason, we recommend ordering this as part of a health test.PregnancyBefore and during pregnancy and lactation, to ensure adequate levels. Best done at least 3 months prior to pregnancy.Health checkDiscover your risk factors for lifestyle diseases in time to do something about them.Diet and lifestyleLow intake of fruit and vegetables, smoking, taking recreational drugs and drinking excessively increase your risk of low folate.Health conditionYou have a health condition associated with malabsorption, such as celiac disease or inflammatory bowel disease.MedicationYou take a drug, such as prednisone, which increases the need for folate.More information Folate can be measured in serum, in whole blood and in red blood cells.  Two recent studies have shown that the amount of folate in serum correlates well with red blood cell folate and may even be a better test. Therefore, based on current evidence we recommend and offer serum folate. What causes low folate? You have lower-than-normal levels of folate in your bloodstream.  Folate (vitamin B9) works alongside vitamin B12 and vitamin C to help the body break down, use, and make new proteins. It also helps in the formation of red and white blood cells and helps to produce DNA. Since folate is water-soluble, it is not stored in the body’s fat tissues and instead is disposed of through the urine. Blood levels decrease after just a few weeks of eating a low-folate diet. Causes of low folate include lack of folate in the diet, overcooking vegetables, diseases that reduce the absorption of folate, excessive alcohol consumption, hemolytic anemia, certain medications, kidney dialysis, or malabsorption. There are several potential reasons for this, including celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis), bacterial overgrowth, intestinal parasites, reduced stomach acid, pancreatic insufficiency, heavy drinking/chronic alcohol use, increased need, and smoking.  What causes high folate? High folate levels may indicate high consumption of fortified foods or excessive supplementation. Consuming more folate than you need does not necessarily cause health problems. High folate levels can also indicate vitamin B12 deficiency, especially if you do not supplement and your diet is not high in folate-rich foods. The body needs B12 to use folate properly.InstructionsThe day beforeDo not eat or drink anything except water for 12 hours before taking this test, as folate is best taken as a fasting test.On the dayRemember to take I.D. with you when going to take a test.    

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14 March 2023
Markers

Follicle-stimulating hormone, FSH

Follicle-stimulating hormone, FSH
What is FSH?FSH is a hormone associated with reproduction – the development of eggs in women and sperm in men. This test measures blood levels of FSH.Why Test FSH?InfertilityWomen who are having difficulties getting pregnant and their partners may have their FSH tested.Menstrual difficultiesFSH can also be valuable for women who are having irregular or absence of menstrual periods.Other symptomsMen who have a low sperm count, low muscle mass, or decreased sex drive and people with symptoms of a pituitary disorder or hypothalamic disorder may have their FSH tested.What do the results mean?The meaning of the results varies depending on age and gender.What causes low FSH?FSH results are interpreted according to your gender, and age. Your FSH levels are lower than expected for a menstruating woman of your age.If you are a woman, low FSH levels may mean: Your ovaries are not making enough eggs Your pituitary gland is not working correctly You have a problem with your hypothalamus, a part of the brain that controls the pituitary gland You are underweight If you are a man, low FSH levels may mean you have a disorder of the pituitary gland or hypothalamus. Low FSH and luteinizing hormone levels in children may be a sign of delayed puberty. Delayed puberty may be caused by: Ovarian or testicle disorder Turner syndrome in girls Klinefelter syndrome in boys An infection A hormone deficiency An eating disorder What causes high FSH?Your FSH levels are higher than expected for a menstruating woman of your age. FSH tests are interpreted according to your gender and age.In women, high FSH levels often correlate with low estrogen and may mean that you have: Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI), is also known as premature ovarian failure. POI is the loss of ovarian function before the age of 40. Polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS), is a common hormonal disorder affecting childbearing women. It is one of the leading causes of female infertility. Perimenopausal or menopausal naturally have higher FSH levels. In postmenopausal women, chronically high FSH levels are associated with an increased risk of osteoporosis, but also a reduced incidence of type 2 diabetes. An ovarian tumour Turner syndrome, is a genetic disorder that affects sexual development in females and often causes infertility If you are a man, high FSH levels may mean: Your testicles have been damaged due to chemotherapy, radiation, infection, alcohol abuse, or other reasons for low production of testosterone You have Klinefelter syndrome, a genetic disorder that affects sexual development in males. It often causes infertility In children, high FSH levels, along with high levels of luteinizing hormone, may mean puberty is about to start or has already started. If this is happening before age 9 in a girl or before age 10 in a boy (precocious puberty), it may be a sign of: A disorder of the central nervous system A brain injury InstructionsFollow your health practitioner’s guidance on the correct day to take this test. No other preparation is needed for this test.If the purpose is to evaluate your fertility, this test should be taken on day 3 (or at least between days 2-5). A woman’s menstrual cycle is measured from the first day of her period (blood flow, not spotting), so Cycle Day 3 is the third day of her period.On the day of the testRemember to take I.D. with you when going to take a test.

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13 March 2023
Markers

Free T3

Free T3
What is Free T3 (FT3)?T3 (triiodothyronine) is a thyroid hormone produced directly by the thyroid when the body converts T4 (thyroxin) T3 (thyroxin). T3 and T4 regulate your body temperature, metabolism, and heart rate.  Most of your T3 is attached to proteins. This test is for free T3, which is the T3 that is unbound to proteins. T3, both total and free, is measured to detect a problem with your thyroid hormones.Why test free T3 (FT3)?Unless this is ordered as a retest or for a specific reason, we recommend ordering this as part of a health test. Measuring FT3 is significant because it is an indicator of triiodothyronine activity in the body.Health checkDiscover your risk factors for lifestyle diseases in time to do something about them. Free T3 is an essential part of any thyroid profile.Thyroid symptomsThyroid symptoms include depression, weakness, fatigue, sleeping problems, sensitivity to heat/cold, dry skin, hair loss, increased heart rate, and infertility.MonitoringMonitor an existing thyroid condition as you make dietary and lifestyle changes or take medication. We can send any results to your doctorWhat do the results mean?The results of different thyroid tests are interpreted together alongside your medical history.Normal FT3A free T3 result within the reference range suggests that you are producing enough T4 and converting it adequately to T3. Normal values do not rule out thyroid problems. If you still have symptoms and your TSH, free T4, and free T3 are normal, we recommend testing your thyroid antibodies.What causes low FT3 levels?A doctor interprets your free T3 results in the context of symptoms and other test results. Low free T3 could signify hypothyroidism or a reduced T4 to T3 conversion. In hypothyroidism, TSH is usually high, and T3 and T4 are normal to low.Causes of low thyroid hormones include autoimmune thyroid disease (most often Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis), chronic inflammation, oxidative stress caused by lifestyle and diet, calorie restriction, low estrogen, low testosterone, and nutrient deficiencies (iodine, selenium, zinc, iron, chromium, copper, vitamin A, and B vitamins).  There is some evidence that eating a very low-carb or ketogenic diet may affect and lower thyroid function. The conversion of T4 to the active form of T3 is insulin-dependent. If you suddenly develop hypothyroid symptoms when sticking to a very low carbohydrate diet, you may need to increase your carbohydrate intake. We recommend unrefined carbohydrates like whole grains (preferably gluten-free), beans, lentils, root vegetables, pumpkin, squash, fruit, and berries. Common symptoms of hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) include fatigue, feeling cold, often cold hands, feet, and the tip of the nose, constipation, dry skin, weight gain or difficulty losing weight, puffy face, hoarseness, muscle weakness, stiff and achy muscles, slowed heart rate, dry and thinning hair, poor memory, and depression.What causes high FT3 levels?The levels of free T3 in your bloodstream are higher than expected. A doctor considers free T3 results in the context of symptoms, other test results, and your symptoms. In hyperthyroidism, TSH levels are usually on the low side or within range, and T3 and T4 are in range or high. High free T3 strongly suggests an overproduction of thyroid hormone (hyperthyroidism). Graves’ disease (an autoimmune disorder that causes hyperthyroidism) can cause high free T3. Other causes include thyroid disease, pregnancy, iodine intake, exposure to toxic metals, certain medications, and consuming gluten. It may also be associated with iodine deficiency.Note that reference ranges may be different during pregnancy.InstructionsThere is no preparation for this test.On the dayRemember to take I.D. with you when going to take a test.  Do not take your thyroid medication until after you take this test.

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09 May 2022
Markers

Free T4

Free T4
What is free T4 (FT4)?T4 (Thyroxine) is a thyroid hormone that is produced by the thyroid gland and plays an important role in the body’s metabolism. Nearly all the T4 and T3 found in the blood is bound to protein. The rest is free (unbound) and is the biologically active form of the hormone. A free T4 test measures the amount of free T4 in the blood. Why test free T4?Unless this is ordered as a retest or for a specific reason, we recommend ordering this as part of a health test. Measuring FT4 is important because it is an indicator of thyroxine activity in the body. Specific reasons include: Health checkDiscover your risk factors for lifestyle diseases in time to do something about them.  Free T4 is an important part of any thyroid profile. SymptomsIncluding depression, weakness, fatigue, sleeping problems, sensitivity to heat/cold, dry skin, hair loss, increased heart rate, and infertility. MonitoringMonitor an existing thyroid condition as you make dietary and lifestyle changes or take medication.  We can send any results to your doctor. ComprehensiveFor a more comprehensive thyroid test. What do the results mean?Free T4 results need to be interpreted in the context of other test results. What causes low free T4? The level of free T4 in your bloodstream is lower than expected. Free T4 results are interpreted in the context of other test results and your current symptoms. Low free T4 indicates that the thyroid does not produce enough thyroid hormone (hypothyroidism). In hypothyroidism, TSH is normally high and T3 and T4 are normal to low. Low T4 may indicate iodine deficiency. Causes of low thyroid hormones include autoimmune thyroid disease (most often Hashimoto’s thyroiditis), chronic inflammation and oxidative stress often caused by lifestyle and diet, calorie restriction, low estrogen, low testosterone, and some nutrient deficiencies including iodine, selenium, zinc, iron, chromium, copper, vitamin A, and B vitamins.   There is some evidence that eating a very low-carb or ketogenic diet may affect and lower thyroid function. The conversion of T4 to the active form of T4 is dependent on insulin. If you notice that you suddenly develop hypothyroid symptoms when sticking to a very low carbohydrate diet, you most likely need to increase your carbohydrate intake. We recommend you stick to healthy sources of carbohydrates such as whole grains (preferably gluten-free), beans, lentils, root vegetables, pumpkin, squash, fruit, and berries.  Common symptoms of hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) include fatigue, feeling cold, often cold hands, feet, and the tip of your nose, constipation, dry skin, weight gain/difficulty losing weight, puffy face, hoarseness, muscle weakness, stiff and achy muscles, slowed heart rate, dry and thinning hair, poor memory, and depression. What causes high free T4?Free T4 results need to be interpreted in the context of other test results and your current symptoms. In hyperthyroidism. TSH levels are often normal to low and T3 and T4 are normal to high. High free T4 can be caused by Graves’ disease (an autoimmune disorder that causes hyperthyroidism), thyroid disease, high iodine intake, and too much thyroid replacement medication. More informationThyroid hormones play an important role in the body's metabolism. T4 (thyroxin) is an important hormone that is produced by the thyroid gland and transported by the blood to the body's cells.  T4 can be free (unbound) or bound to protein in your blood.  Nowadays most health providers consider free T4 to be the most important test. Ideally, it should be measured together with TSH and T3. If the thyroid gland produces too much hormone, symptoms are those of a raised metabolism, including rapid heart rate, sweating, increased appetite, weight loss, tremors, and poor sleep.  Low thyroid hormone has the opposite effect, with side effects such as feeling cold, fatigue, weight gain, hair loss and constipation and the other symptoms above. TSH stimulates the production and release of T4 (primarily) and T3 from the thyroid gland. Thyroid health is somewhat complex and your practitioner should take into account the following: Blood test results: Free T4, free T3 and TSH. Do you produce enough thyroid hormone? Is your T4 converting properly to T3? Is your TSH within an optimal range? Symptoms: If the above are within normal range, but you have symptoms, or are pregnant, thyroid antibody testing should be undertaken. Individual differences and your results: Do you have symptoms and your results are low or high normal? Perhaps these levels are too low or high for you. Instructions No advance preparation is needed for this test. On the day of the test Do not take your thyroid medication until after you have taken this test. Remember to take I.D. with you when going to take a test. Do not work out before going to do this test, as this may affect your results Take this test before 10 am, as results can vary throughout the day.  If you are repeating a test, try to take it at the same time of day. Arrive in good time and sit down quietly for 15 minutes before the test is taken.  

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14 March 2023
Markers

Gamma Glutamyl transferase (GGT)

Gamma Glutamyl transferase (GGT)
What is GGT?GGT is a liver enzyme.  Typically used to detect liver function and health and a marker of alcohol consumption, it is now considered an independent risk marker for many health conditions.Why test GGT?Unless this is ordered as a retest or for a specific reason, we recommend ordering this as part of a health test.Health CheckDiscover your risk factors for lifestyle diseases in time to do something about them.MonitoringStudies suggest that GGT is a useful value for predicting long-term health.  An initial value can be tracked over time.Health HistoryIf you have a personal or family history of liver disease, insulin resistance, atherosclerosis, hemochromatosis, stroke, type 2 diabetes, kidney disease, or cancer.Diet and LifestyleYou are a moderate to heavy drinker, smoke, eat an unhealthy diet, take or have taken drugs, or have other lifestyle risk factors.What do the results mean?GGT is a liver enzyme that has traditionally been used to detect liver health and monitor recent alcohol consumption.  More recently, higher levels of GGT have been shown to be early warning signs of other health risks such as type II diabetes, stroke, and atherosclerosis.What causes low GGT?A low GGT is a normal and desired result. Very low levels of GGT are usually not concerning but may be a sign of an unbalanced and nutrient-poor diet leading to vitamin and mineral deficiencies (especially magnesium and B6).  A very low level is associated with hypothyroidism, so we recommend those with very low GGT test their thyroid hormone levels. A low or normal GGT makes it unlikely that a person has liver disease.What causes high GGT?GGT levels are influenced by factors such as age, gender, exercise, weight, pregnancy, diet, alcohol, recreational drug use, and medications. Adult males tend to have higher levels than adult females.Elevated GGT levels indicate that something is damaging the liver. The higher the GGT, the greater the damage to your liver. A high GGT level, regardless of other risk factors, appears to increase disease risk. If GGT is elevated, dietary and lifestyle changes can help to effectively lower GGT concentrations.The risk for heart disease increases around the middle of what is considered normal (for a lab’s reference range).  It is therefore preferable to be below the reference range midpoint (based on age and gender). Liver conditions that can cause high GGT include hepatitis (liver inflammation), especially viral hepatitis and alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis (liver scarring), cholestasis (blocked bile duct), alcoholic liver disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), liver ischemia (lack of blood flow to the liver causing the death of liver tissue) and liver tumours/cancer.  Other conditions that may affect liver function and health include pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, diabetes, metabolic syndrome (combination of insulin resistance, high blood pressure, abnormal fat profile, and obesity), congestive heart failure, certain medications, and alcohol.Both hypothyroidism (usually lower T3/T4 and higher TSH) and hyperthyroidism (higher T3/T4 and usually lower TSH) have been implicated in higher GGT levels.A high GGT level can help rule out bone disease as the cause of an increased ALP level. High ALP levels are more likely to be attributable to bone disease when GGT is low or normal.More informationRecent studies suggest that GGT measurements may predict the odds of health risks such as atherosclerosis, stroke, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, kidney disease, cancer, and all-cause mortality in both men and women. These studies suggest that there is an increased risk of the disease once GGT rises above the “low-normal” range for gender, even if GGT is within the ‘normal’ range. For some people, it might be important to test GGT regularly.  A 7-year Austrian study of 76,000 people found that irrespective of the original GGT measurement, individuals whose GGT concentrations increased over time had more disease and mortality risk.  A decreasing GGT value resulted in a lower risk.  Lower initial GGT always indicated less risk than higher. This was particularly important in men under 60 and women under 65.InstructionsThe day before the testAvoid fatty foods and alcohol today.On the day of the testRemember to take I.D. with you when going to take a test.  

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13 March 2023
Markers

H. pylori

H. pylori
What is Helicobacter pylori / H. pyloriH. pylori is a spiral-shaped bacteria that grows in the digestive tract and often attacks the stomach lining. H. pylori infections are usually harmless, but most ulcers in the stomach and small intestine are caused by H. pylori. A stool test for H. pylori detects H. pylori antigen in a stool sample and can confirm a current infection.Why test Helicobacter pylori / H. pylori?Testing is used to diagnose an infection due to the bacteria and to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment given.  H. Pylori infection is associated with an increased risk of developing ulcers (peptic ulcer disease), chronic gastritis, and gastric (stomach) cancer.Gastrointestinal upsetSymptoms include abdominal pain, black stools, unexplained weight loss, indigestion, fullness, bloating, nausea or belching.MonitoringYou have been diagnosed with H. pylori and want to check that treatment was effective.Health HistoryA person close to you has tested positive for H. pylori, which can be passed on through saliva and feces.What do the results mean?NegativeA negative test means that you do not have H. pylori antigen in your stool.If a person does not have H. pylori antigen in the stool, this means that a current H. pylori infection is unlikely but cannot rule out previous infection.  PositiveA positive test means that you have H. pylori antigen in your stool, which suggests a current infection.More informationWe offer this test because in our experience people whose symptoms have gone undiagnosed after visiting a doctor have received help after doing their own testing. This test should never replace the care of your own doctor, particularly if you have any of the symptoms mentioned above.InstructionsNo advance preparation is required for this test.  Remember to take ID with you when going to take a test.

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14 March 2023
Markers

HbA1c

HbA1c
What is HBA1C?Hemoglobin A1c, also called A1c or glycated hemoglobin, is hemoglobin with glucose attached to it.  An HBA1C test evaluates long-term glucose, the average amount of glucose in the blood over the last three to four months, by measuring the percentage of glycated hemoglobin.  The higher the glucose in the blood, the higher the HBA1C valueWhy test HBA1C?Unless this is ordered as a retest or for a specific reason, we recommend ordering this as part of a health test.Health CheckDiscover your risk factors for lifestyle diseases in time to do something about them.Diabetes RiskAn HBA1C test can help to identify those at risk of diabetes.MonitoringAn HBA1C test can be used to help monitor a person’s diabetes and help with treatment decisions.SymptomsSymptoms of increased HBA1C can include increased thirst, increased urination, increased appetite, tiredness, confusion, dizziness and shakiness and wounds that don’t heal.Other InformationRisk factors for high blood sugar include an unhealthy diet, stress and physical inactivity.What causes low HBA1C?Low HBA1C can be a sign of reactive hypoglycaemia or a liver glycogen storage problem.What causes high HBA1C?High HBA1C means that your average longer-term blood sugar is higher than expected. High HBA1C can be used to diagnose diabetes in non-pregnant adults. Two tests taken on different occasions should both exceed 48 mmol/mol.  High HBA1C is also a sign of insulin resistance.American Diabetes Association (ADA) reference valuesUnder 39 mmol/mol - Låg risk för diabetesMellan 39-47 mmol/mol - förhöjd risk för diabetes (prediabetes)Over 48 mmol/mol - manifest diabetesWorld Health Organisation (WHO) reference values:Under 42 mmol/mol - Låg risk för diabetesMellan 42-47 mmol/mol - förhöjd risk för diabetes (prediabetes)Over 48 mmol/mol - manifest diabetesOptimal Reference Range: 4.1%-5.6% (20-39)InstructionsNo advance preparation is needed for this test - but if it is taken as part of a larger panel of tests, you may need to fast for 10 (preferably 12) hours before taking the test.Remember to take your ID with you when going to take a test. Arrive early and sit down quietly for 15 minutes before the test is taken.  

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08 March 2023
Markers

hCG

hCG
What is hCG?Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone produced by the placenta of a pregnant woman. In early pregnancy, hCG levels increase and can be detected in the blood and urine. The test can confirm or rule out pregnancy and can also give an indication of how the pregnancy is progressing.Why test hCG?Suspected PregnancyTo confirm pregnancy at an early stage.IVF TreatmentMany clinics will require you to test hCG after a miscarriage and before starting IVF treatment.Suspected Miscarriage This test is sometimes done in case of suspected miscarriage, along with progesterone.What does a negative hCG test mean?A negative hCG result means that it is unlikely that a woman is pregnant; but it cannot completely rule out pregnancy if the test is done too early.What does a positive hCG test mean?A positive hCG means that a woman is likely pregnant.hCG levels usually double about every 2 days in the first 4 weeks of a normal pregnancy. This slows to every 3 and a half days by six weeks.  A pregnancy that is failing will also result in longer doubling times or even falling concentrations. After a miscarriage, hCG concentrations drop rapidly and should reach undetectable levels. If this does not happen, it may mean that a dilation and curettage (D&C) is required.InstructionsNo advance preparation is needed for this test.On the day of the testRemember to take your ID with you when going to take a test.  Do not work out before going to do this test, as this may affect your results.

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10 March 2023
Markers

HDL Cholesterol

HDL Cholesterol
What is HDL cholesterol?HDL stands for high-density lipoprotein. HDL cholesterol helps return LDL cholesterol to the liver to be removed from the body. In healthy people, healthy levels of HDL cholesterol are thought to lower the risk of blood clots, heart disease, and stroke. The HDL test is usually done as part of a larger lipid panel that includes at least total cholesterol, LDL or non-HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. Why test HDL cholesterol? Unless this is ordered as a retest or for a specific reason, we recommend ordering this as part of a health test. Health CheckDiscover your risk factors for lifestyle diseases in time to do something about them. Health HistoryYou have a family history of high cholesterol or heart disease. LifestyleSmoking, high blood pressure, and an unhealthy diet all increase the risk of heart disease. MonitoringHDL should be checked regularly if a previous test has indicated an increased risk of heart disease. What causes low HDL cholesterol? Very low cholesterol can indicate inflammatory processes in the body. Genetic conditions, consumption of hydrogenated fats, smoking, and health conditions from insulin resistance and high blood pressure to obesity have been shown to lower HDL cholesterol. Very low HDL may be a sign of lack of exercise and may be associated with hyperthyroidism, heavy metals, atherosclerosis, and fatty liver in healthy individuals. In healthy people, HDL cholesterol on the lower side may increase heart disease risk. What causes high HDL cholesterol?High HDL cholesterol is most often caused by genetic factors that alter the way HDL works in the body and can increase the risk of heart disease. The significance of higher HDL cholesterol is controversial. Higher than normal HDL cholesterol was once thought to be beneficial, but newer research suggests that it may not be beneficial for everyone.  In healthy people, HDL cholesterol on the higher side confers health benefits such as lower heart disease risk.  However, higher than normal HDL cholesterol has also been associated with several autoimmune processes. For optimal protection against cardiovascular disease, the HDL cholesterol test must be analysed in conjunction with LDL (or total cholesterol), and triglycerides. Studies suggest that higher HDL (40 mg/dL or higher) helps reduce cardiovascular disease only when LDL and triglycerides are low (100 mg/dL or less).  One study found that when LDL and triglycerides rise above 100 mg/dL or 150 mg/DL, respectively, higher HDL has no effect on outcomes. In case of an HDL level that is outside the reference range, we advise our clients to visit a doctor for medical advice and to consult a Nordic Wellth practitioner for dietary, lifestyle and supplementation advice and support. More information Values that are slightly outside the reference range can be normal. Reference ranges are not perfect and approximately 5% of healthy individuals may have results outside the reference range. Instructions No advance preparation is needed for this test. On the Day Remember to take I.D. with you when going to take a test. Arrive in good time and sit down quietly for 15 minutes before the test is taken.

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15 March 2023
Markers

Hematocrit

Hematocrit

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15 March 2023
Markers

Hemoglobin

Hemoglobin

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13 March 2023
Markers

Homocysteine

Homocysteine
What is homocysteine? Homocysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid that is a bioproduct of methionine. It is an important marker in health and disease. Homocysteine is toxic and may be a marker for several chronic diseases.Elevated levels are thought to be caused by abnormalities in the methylation pathway, which is key for the regulation of the immune system and inflammation. Elevated homocysteine is common in deficiencies of vitamins B6, B9 (folate), and B12, and is an independent risk factor for heart disease, stroke, autoimmune disease, recurrent miscarriage, cancer, leaky blood-brain barrier, dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, depression, and cognitive impairment.A homocysteine test is often done alongside an MMA test, a functional test that can detect vitamin B12 deficiency. Several genetic factors can result in irregular homocysteine levels, both high and low.The reference for high homocysteine is >15. Research shows that optimal levels of homocysteine range from 7 to 11 umol/L. Stroke incidence occurs when homocysteine levels exceed 11 umol/L.Why test homocysteine?Unless this is ordered as a retest or for a specific reason, we recommend ordering this as part of a health test. Testing homocysteine can be useful for several reasons.Health screenDiscover your risk factors for lifestyle diseases in time to do something about them.Nutrient deficiencyIf you suspect a B6, B12, or folate deficiency.Health historyA family or personal history of high homocysteine, or an increased risk of heart disease/stroke. Planning a babyElevated homocysteine, in combination with certain genetic, may affect pregnancy outcomes.What causes low homocysteine?Low homocysteine is known as hypohomocysteinaemia. This can be caused by several factors, including an increase in the production of glutathione (during which the body uses more homocysteine than usual), a low intake of vitamins B9 (folate) and B12, a low intake of amino acids methionine and cysteine, and excessive conversion to another substance called cystathione.Since animal products are the main source of methionine, vegans, and vegetarians may be at increased risk of low homocysteine. Another reason is an inherently low level of the enzyme MTHFR. Research shows that up to 25% of people suffer from a genetic polymorphism (a type of weakness) in the MTHFR gene.Low homocysteine may be a sign of oxidative stress if it is caused by the body producing more glutathione in response to oxidative stress.What causes high homocysteine?High homocysteine, also known as hyperhomocysteinaemia can cause numerous health issues. High homocysteine can indicate malnutrition and particularly vitamin B12 or folate deficiency, so we strongly recommend testing your B12 and folate levels. People with kidney conditions can have higher homocysteine levels. Stress can temporarily increase homocysteine. Certain genetic polymorphisms, like MTHFR 677CT are associated with elevated homocysteine, particularly in association with folate deficiency and vitamin B12 deficiency. Homocysteine levels tend to increase with age, smoking, being male, coffee consumption, high blood pressure, higher blood fat and cholesterol levels, high creatinine, and certain medications such as carbamazepine, methotrexate, and phenytoin. Women's concentrations increase after menopause, possibly due to decreased estrogen production. Low estrogen levels can also lower homocysteine.Having normal homocysteine levels does not rule out other problems. If you are suffering recurrent miscarriages and your homocysteine is normal, there are other tests that we can order (such as S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH)). High homocysteine, also known as hyperhomocysteinemia can cause health issues. Even though the reference for high homocysteine is >, research shows that optimal levels of homocysteine ranges from 7 to 11 μmol/L. Stroke incidence occurs when homocysteine levels exceed 11 μmol/L.High homocysteine increases the risk of ischemic stroke and may be an independent risk factor for heart disease, particularly in people with other risk factors. Studies also suggest that elevated homocysteine levels in the late first trimester (8 to 12 weeks) of pregnancy may affect pregnancy outcomes. Several studies have found that high homocysteine increases the risk of ischemic stroke and may be an independent risk factor for heart disease, particularly in people with other risk factors. Studies also suggest that elevated homocysteine levels in the late first trimester (8 to 12 weeks) of pregnancy may affect pregnancy outcomes. More informationHigh homocysteine may increase the risk of heart disease and stroke. InstructionsNo preparation is needed for this test.On the dayRemember to take your ID. with you when going to take a test.

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14 March 2023
Markers

Immunoglobulin A

Immunoglobulin A
What is S-IgA?The S-IgA test checks the levels of antibodies called immunoglobulins in your bloodstream. Antibodies are proteins made by your immune cells to fight off pathogens like bacteria, viruses, and mold and also food proteins. The immunoglobulin test can show whether there's a problem with your immune system.  IgA antibodies are found in the mucous membranes of the lungs, sinuses, stomach, and intestines. They are also found in fluids produced by these membranes (saliva, tears, and blood). Most S-IgA is produced by the gastrointestinal barrier. IgA antibodies constitute 10 to 15% of the total antibodies.Why test S-IgA?Health checkDiscover factors for lifestyle diseases in time and do something about them. You may want to rule out or diagnose problems with the immune system, intestines, and kidneys. IgA is also a common biomarker for children with recurrent infections or chronic health problems.SymptomsAn S-IgA test is often part of a routine check when you have diverse symptoms, especially frequent infections of the sinuses, lungs, stomach, or intestines, chronic diarrhea or other gut problems, unintended weight loss, fevers, skin rashes, or allergies.MonitoringMonitor changes to your blood values as you make lifestyle changes or undergo treatments.More InformationWhat do the results mean?What causes low S-IgA?Low S-IgA means that your immune system is weakened and that something has been attacking your body for a long time. Causes include the use of certain medicines such as steroids and immunosuppressive drugs, diabetes, kidney disease and/or failure, long-term autoimmune disease, chronic disease/symptoms, long-term consumption of foods that you have allergy/sensitivity to, chronic infections, long-term stress, poor sleep, and exhaustion. One common reason for low S-IgA is damage to the intestinal barrier, such as with untreated celiac disease or non-celiac gluten intolerance, which can reduce S-IgA production.You don’t necessarily have one of these conditions just because your immunoglobulin level is low.What causes high S-IgA?High S-IgA means that your immune system is acutely reacting to something foreign like active infections, inflammation, allergies, development of disease or autoimmune disease, or autoimmune flare-ups.More informationInstructionsNo advance preparation is needed for this test.On the day of the testRemember to take I.D. with you when going to take a test. Arrive early and sit down quietly for 15 minutes before taking the test.

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14 March 2023
Markers

Immunoglobulin E

Immunoglobulin E
What is S-IgE?The S-IgE test checks the levels of antibodies called immunoglobulins in your bloodstream. Antibodies are proteins made by your immune cells to fight off pathogens like bacteria, viruses, and mold but also food proteins. The immunoglobulin test can show whether there's a problem with your immune system. IgE antibodies are generally related to allergic reactions. Newer research is also supporting IgE as a biomarker in oncology.Why test S-IgE?Health checkDiscover factors for lifestyle diseases in time and do something about them. This is especially important for people suffering from atopy and frequent allergic reactions to foods or airborne allergens. People with allergies can develop asthma symptoms including postnasal drip, itchy eyes, skin rashes, and eczema.SymptomsAn S-IgE test is often part of a routine check when you have allergies and/or suffer from food reactions or diverse symptoms such as frequent infections of the sinuses, lungs, stomach, or intestines, chronic diarrhea, fever, unexplained weight loss, eczema, or other skin problems like rashes, dry, red, itchy and scaly skin.MonitoringMonitor changes to your blood values as you make lifestyle changes or undergo treatments.More InformationWhat do the results mean?What causes low S-IgE?Low or undetectable S-IgE usually means that your immune system isn't working as it should, and can point to an immunodeficiency disorder. Causes include the use of certain medicines such as steroids and immunosuppressive drugs, chronic disease, long-term autoimmune disease, gut disorders, cancers, and chronic infections. You don’t necessarily have one of these conditions just because your immunoglobulin level is low.Ultra-low IgE levels are sometimes used as a new biomarker in oncology (cancer).What causes high S-IgE?Elevated IgE is a robust biomarker in atopy, allergic disorders, and parasitic infections. Very elevated levels can lead to severe allergic reactions called anaphylactic shock.More informationInstructionsNo advance preparation is needed for this test.On the day of the testRemember to take I.D. with you when going to take a test. Arrive early and sit down quietly for 15 minutes before taking the test.

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14 March 2023
Markers

Immunoglobulin G

Immunoglobulin G
What is S-IgM?The S-IgM test checks the levels of antibodies called immunoglobulins in your bloodstream. Antibodies are proteins made by your immune cells to fight off pathogens like bacteria, viruses, and mold but also to food proteins. The immunoglobulin test can show whether there's a problem with your immune system. IgM antibodies are your body’s first line of defense against infection. The body makes IgM antibodies on first infection with bacteria and viruses. Levels then fall as IgG antibodies take over.Why test S-IgM?Health checkDiscover your risk factors for lifestyle diseases in time and do something about them. SymptomsAn S-IgM test is often part of a routine check when you have diverse symptoms, especially frequent infections of the sinuses, lungs, stomach, or intestines, chronic diarrhea, fever, unexplained weight loss, allergies, or skin rashes.MonitoringMonitor changes to your blood values as you make lifestyle changes or undergo treatments.What causes low S-IgM?Low S-IgM means that your immune system isn't working optimally. Normal levels of IgM antibodies help provide protection against pathogens like bacteria and viruses. Having low levels has been associated with a higher risk of recurring infections.Causes of low IgM include the use of certain medicines such as steroids and immunosuppressive drugs, diabetes, kidney disease and/or failure, long-term autoimmune disease, gut disorders, and chronic infections. You don’t necessarily have one of these conditions just because your immunoglobulin level is out of range.What causes high S-IgM?High S-IgM means that your immune system is acutely reacting to something foreign like active infections, inflammation, development of disease or autoimmune disease, or autoimmune flare-ups.More informationInstructions No advance preparation is needed for this test.On the day of the test Remember to take I.D. with you when going to take a test. Arrive early and sit down quietly for 15 minutes before taking the test.

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10 March 2023
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LDL Cholesterol

LDL Cholesterol
What is LDL cholesterol?Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is a lipoprotein containing Apo B that carries cholesterol in the blood.  Maintaining and monitoring healthy blood fats is important for good health. Dietary and lifestyle factors, as well as other health conditions, can affect the level of cholesterol in the blood. The LDL test is a calculated value that is usually ordered as part of a full lipid profile on either a routine health exam or to evaluate risk factors for heart disease. The LDL test is usually done as part of a larger lipid panel that includes at least total cholesterol, LDL or non-HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. Why test LDL cholesterol? Unless this is ordered as a retest or for a specific reason, we recommend ordering this as part of a health test.Health CheckDiscover your risk factors for lifestyle diseases in time to do something about them.MonitoringMonitor changes to your blood values as you make lifestyle changes or undergo treatments.What causes low LDL cholesterolLow cholesterol means that you have higher-than-expected cholesterol levels in the blood.  Oxidative stress, malnutrition, hyperthyroidism, autoimmune processes, and liver/biliary dysfunction are some causes of low cholesterol.What causes high LDL cholesterol?High cholesterol means that you have higher than expected cholesterol levels in the blood.  Genetic factors, smoking, dietary saturated fats (especially palmitic acid from butter and trans fats), and a low fibre or low-sodium diet) can all increase your LDL cholesterol. Health conditions like hypothyroidism and insulin resistance can also have this effect.More informationLDL is often called the ‘bad’ cholesterol because it contributes to heart disease risk, but this description is a misnomer. Cholesterol is cholesterol, LDLs are just the most common circulating Apo B containing lipoproteins which can be retained in your artery wall. Both naturally randomized genetic studies and randomized intervention trials consistently demonstrate that lower plasma LDL particle concentration reduces the risk of heart disease.  The more of these Apo B-containing lipoproteins, such as LDL, that are circulating in your blood, the higher your risk of heart disease [1]. LDL cholesterol rises in pregnancy.  Some medications affect LDL-C levels. Tell us if you are taking any medications or supplements.InstructionsPostpone this test if you are ill. Wait at least 6 weeks after illness to have LDL measured.The day beforeDo not eat or drink anything except water for at least 10 (preferably 12) hours before taking this test.On the dayThis test is ideally done in the early morning after an overnight fast.  Remember to take I.D. with you when going to take a test. [2]   

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15 March 2023
Markers

Leukocytes

Leukocytes

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06 March 2023
Markers

Lipoprotein (a)

Lipoprotein (a)
Information about Lipoprotein (a) What is lipoprotein (a)? Lipoprotein (a) – or Lp (a) - is a type of lipoprotein that transports cholesterol in the blood. A lipoprotein (a) test measures blood levels of Lp (a) as part of an evaluation of heart disease risk. Why test lipoprotein (a)?Health Check Discover your risk factors for lifestyle diseases in time to do something about them. Family HistoryFamily history of cardiovascular disease, especially at a young age, can increase the risk of heart disease. Health HistoryHistory of heart attack or stroke, especially when lipid profile is normal or shows only slightly elevated cholesterol. What causes low lipoprotein (a)? Lp (a) is genetically determined. There are no known problems caused by low Lp (a) and many people have no Lp (a) detectable in the blood.  Having a lower Lp (a) is thought to decrease heart disease risk. What causes high lipoprotein (a)? A high Lp (a) may increase a person’s risk of cardiovascular disease. It can occur in people even with a normal lipid profile. Lifestyle and dietary changes may help to lower other risk factors for heart disease. Although Lp (a) is genetically determined, some health conditions can increase Lp (a) and your doctor may wish to investigate these. More information Lp (a) levels are genetically determined.  Lp (a) is considered to contribute to the overall risk of cardiovascular disease.  About 50% of people who have a heart attack have a normal cholesterol level. Therefore, researchers have sought other ways to investigate heart attack risk and Lp (a) is one of them.  Lp (a) is thought to contribute to heart attack risk by promoting the development of atherosclerotic plaque on the walls of blood vessels. Instructions No advance preparation is needed for this test, but as it is often part of a lipid profile you may be advised to fast before taking it so read the instructions clearly when ordering a test.Remember to take your ID with you when going to take a test.  

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13 March 2023
Markers

Luteinizing hormone, LH

Luteinizing hormone, LH
What is LH? Luteinizing hormone (LH) is primarily a fertility hormone present in both men and women. In women, LH affects the ovaries, stimulating ovulation and the synthesis of progesterone.  In males, it affects the testes.  LH has a role in puberty, menstruation, and fertility. Why test LH? Unless this is ordered as a retest or for a specific reason, we recommend ordering this as part of a health test. LH is used as included in a panel of tests to evaluate a woman’s reproductive function and menstrual problems.  Determining your blood LH levels can indicate underlying problems associated with a variety of reproductive health issues. Reasons to test your LH include: Women: You are struggling to get pregnant or have suffered infertility or miscarriage You want to evaluate your fertility health You suspect that you have entered perimenopause or menopause You have irregular or absent menstrual periods or other suspected problems, e.g., Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) Men : You have signs of low testosterone levels, such as low muscle mass or a decreased sex drive Experts disagree about the extent to which men should test their hormones as part of a fertility assessment. It is thought that, in the majority of cases, male hormones are not the cause of male infertility.Other factors that contribute to male infertility include, inflammation of the veins that drain the testicles, infection, antibodies attacking the sperm, thyroid-/ adrenal-/ pituitary- imbalances, nutrient deficiencies, Celiac disease, and medications. (Mayo Clinic).LH is also tested to investigate pituitary tumours but this is out of Nordic Wellth’s scope of practice. What causes low LH?Low or high levels do not necessarily indicate a problem if there are no symptoms. If you are woman low LH levels may mean:Your pituitary gland is not working correctly You have an eating disorder You are malnourished If you are a man, low LH levels may mean you have a disorder of the pituitary gland or the hypothalamus. Low LH and FSH levels in children may be a sign of delayed puberty, that could be caused by: Ovarian or testicle disorder Turner Syndrome (girls) Klinefelter's syndrome (boys) Infection Hormone deficiency Eating disorder (s) What causes high LH?The results of this test are complex and need to be looked at by your doctor considering other test results. LH is used alongside other tests. LH and FSH levels can help to distinguish between primary ovarian failure (direct ovarian failure or lack of ovarian development) and secondary ovarian failure (ovarian failure due to disorders of either the pituitary or the hypothalamus).Secondary ovarian failure causes low levels of LH and FSH and indicate a problem with the pituitary or hypothalamus.  In women who are trying to get pregnant, several LH tests can help identify the surge prior to ovulation An LH surge indicates that ovulation has occurred.You have more circulating LH than expected. High levels do not necessarily indicate a problem if there are no symptoms.  The significance of LH results depends on a few factors, such as your gender, and your age.  If you are woman high LH levels may mean you: Are not ovulating. If you are of childbearing age, this may mean you have a problem in your ovaries. If you are older, it may mean you have started menopause or are in perimenopause. Have polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PCOS is a common hormone disorder affecting childbearing women. It is one of the leading causes of female infertility. Have Turner syndrome, a genetic disorder affects sexual development in females. It often causes infertility.   In postmenopausal women, an increase in LH levels may play a role in the development of Alzheimer’s Disease. LH promotes the deposition of amyloid β plaques in the hippocampus, as seen in Alzheimer’s Disease.If you are a man, high LH levels may mean: Your testicles were damaged by chemotherapy, radiation, infection, or alcohol abuse. You have Klinefelter's syndrome, a genetic disorder that affects sexual development in males. It often causes infertility. In children, high LH levels, along with high levels of follicle-stimulating hormone, may mean puberty is about to start or has already started. If this is happening before age 9 in a girl or before age 10 in a boy (precocious puberty), it may be a sign of: A disorder of the central nervous systems A brain injury More informationLH levels should rise at mid-cycle, about 24 to 36 hours before ovulation occurs. High levels of LH on day 3 may indicate disorders such as polycystic ovary disease or ovarian failure.  If you take hormonal contraceptives, the results of this test may not be accurate.InstructionsThis test should not be performed during ongoing or after recently completed antibiotic treatment.  If the purpose is to evaluate your fertility, this test should be taken on day 3 (or at least between days 2-5). A woman’s menstrual cycle is measured from the first day of her period (blood flow, not spotting), so Cycle Day 3 is the third day of her period.On the day of the testRemember to take I.D. with you when going to take a test.  

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13 March 2023
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Magnesium

Magnesium
What is Magnesium?Magnesium is an important nutrient for strong bones and muscles, energy, and nerve function. It helps regulate blood pressure and your heartbeat. In fact, 300 or more biochemical reactions depend on magnesium (1). A serum magnesium test measures the amount of magnesium in the bloodstream.Why test magnesium?Unless this is ordered as a retest or for a specific reason, we recommend ordering this as part of a health test.Health checkDiscover your risk factors for lifestyle diseases in time to do something about them.Lifestyle factorsYour alcohol intake is high, or you eat a diet low in fruits and vegetables, nuts, seeds, and beans.Health HistoryYou have had magnesium deficiency or suffer from digestive complaints, especially diarrhea or constipation since diarrhea can reduce magnesium. Constipaton is associated with low intake.MonitoringMonitor changes to your blood values as you make lifestyle changes or take supplements. Please note: if you are experiencing severe symptoms associated with magnesium deficiency or other health conditions, such as weakness, muscle cramps, confusion, seizures, or cardiac arrhythmias, we strongly recommend you consult your doctor as soon as possible.What causes low magnesium?A low blood level of magnesium may suggest that a person is either not consuming or absorbing enough magnesium or is losing magnesium. Causes include a diet low in plant foods or high in refined foods, uncontrolled diabetes, prolonged diarrhea, and other gastrointestinal problems, proton pump inhibitors and other antacids, ulcerative colitis, pancreatitis, any disorders that affect fat absorption, long-term diuretic use, chronic alcohol abuse, sweating, stress and burn injury. Lower magnesium levels can occur during pregnancy, particularly in the second and third trimesters. Both athletes and sauna users have increased magnesium need.What causes high magnesium?High levels are usually due to excessive supplementation or problems with excretion. Some people eliminate less than expected amounts of magnesium from the body. Blood magnesium levels can be affected by medications. Several health conditions can result in high magnesium, including hypothyroidism, hyperparathyroidism and dehydration.  The body keeps magnesium levels stable. Cell levels can be low even if blood magnesium is normal.More informationInstructionsThere is no advance preparation for this test.On the dayRemember to take I.D. with you when going to take a test.

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15 March 2023
Markers

MCH

MCH

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15 March 2023
Markers

MCV

MCV

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14 March 2023
Markers

Methylmalonate, MMA

Methylmalonate, MMA
What is Methylmalonic Acid?Methylmalonic acid is a compound produced during amino acid metabolism that increases with vitamin B12 deficiency. Vitamin B12 is an essential nutrient that can only be obtained from the diet. Deficiency can result in cognitive and mental problems, dizziness, numbness, and neurological damage. Vitamin B12 deficiency is relatively common. Up to 20% of the elderly population may have insufficient Vitamin B12. Pregnant women, vegetarians, vegans and people with poor absorption, intestinal diseases or those taking stomach acid pills are at increased risk of B12 deficiency. The Methylmalonic acid (MMA) test, along with a homocysteine test, can help to uncover an early or mild vitamin B12 deficiency.  They are often ordered together when a person’s vitamin B12 test result is in the lower half of the reference range, especially if they have symptoms or clinical indications of vitamin B12 deficiency.Why test MMA?Health checkDiscover your risk factors for lifestyle diseases in time to do something about them.Symptoms of B12 deficiencyThere are many symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency, including difficulty walking, mood swings, numbness in your hands or feet, difficulty in thinking clearly, fatigue, headaches, depression, anemia, infertility, insomnia, irritability, and anxiety.Low serum B12Your serum B12 measures in the lowest half of the reference range.More informationVitamin B12 deficiency can result in cognitive and mental problems, dizziness, numbness, and neurological damage.  MMA increases in concentration when vitamin B12 is deficient and is a marker of vitamin B12 deficiency.  Kidney disease can falsely elevate MMA.Vitamin B12 deficiency is common. Up to 20% of the elderly population may have insufficient vitamin B12 levels. Pregnant women, vegetarians, vegans, people with poor absorption, intestinal diseases or those taking stomach acid pills are all at increased risk of B12 deficiency. Although MMA is considered the current ‘gold standard’ of vitamin B12 testing, it is significantly more expensive than a serum vitamin B12 test. Hence your doctor will usually order a vitamin B12 test first, and only possibly order an MMA test if B12 is in the lower half of the reference range, and you have symptoms of deficiency or insufficiency. Testing both vitamin B12 and MMA together gives a better picture of your B12 status.What do the results mean?MMA tests are interpreted considering other tests and the clinical picture. If MMA and homocysteine levels are normal, a B12 deficiency is unlikely to be the cause of any symptoms.What causes low MMA levels?Low MMA is the expected result and is not considered clinically significant.What causes high MMA levels?If your MMA and homocysteine levels are increased and your vitamin B12 level is mildly decreased, then an early or mild B12 deficiency may be present. There may be a lack of availability of B12 at the tissue level. If the homocysteine level is elevated and MMA is normal, a folate deficiency may be present. This is important because it is important to distinguish a B12 deficiency from a folate deficiency. Moderately to severely elevated levels of MMA may be seen in infants with the rare inherited disease methylmalonic acidemia.InstructionsNo advance preparation is required for this test.On the dayRemember to take your ID with you when going to take a test.

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15 March 2023
Markers

Monocytes

Monocytes

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15 March 2023
Markers

Neutrophils

Neutrophils

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16 March 2023
Markers

Pancreas Amylase

Pancreas Amylase
What is pancreas amylase?Amylase is a digestive enzyme predominantly made by your pancreas and salivary glands that helps your body break down carbohydrates. It is made in the pancreas and the glands that make saliva. When the pancreas is diseased or inflamed, it releases increased amounts of amylase into the blood. A test can be done to measure the level of this digestive enzyme in your blood. It can be normal to have some amylase in your blood and urine.  Having too much or too little may be a sign of problems with the pancreas or salivary glands or another condition.Why test pancreas amylase?SymptomsIf you have any symptoms related to low, or high pancreas amylase.Which lifestyle factors can cause low pancreas amylase?Low serum amylase has been reported in certain common cardiometabolic conditions such as obesity, diabetes (regardless of type), metabolic syndrome, and other conditions related to insulin resistance.What causes a high pancreas amylase?High serum amylase has been observed in individuals who exercise regularly, and in high-performance long-distance runners. Both smoking and fitness have a substantial impact on insulin action, so these results may be explained from the view of insulin sensitivityMore informationThere are many other reasons for low pancreas amylase, but we do not aim to diagnose or test for any health disorders. If your doctor suspects you have pancreatitis, he or she may order a blood lipase test, along with an amylase blood test. Lipase is another enzyme that the pancreas produces. Lipase tests are considered to be more accurate for diagnosing pancreatitis, especially when pancreatitis is caused by heavy drinking.InstructionsDo not drink alcohol for 24 hours before having an amylase blood or urine test. If you are having a blood test, you should fast (not eat or drink) for two hours before the test. On the day of the testRemember to take your ID with you when going to take a test.

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14 March 2023
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Parathyroid Hormone, PTH

Parathyroid Hormone, PTH
A hormone that regulates calcium levels in the body

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15 March 2023
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Platelets

Platelets

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14 March 2023
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Potassium

Potassium
What is potassium?Potassium is an electrolyte, a substance that conducts electricity in the body, along with sodium, chloride, calcium, and magnesium.  Potassium is crucial to heart function and plays a key role in skeletal and smooth muscle contraction, making it important for normal digestive and muscular function.  A potassium test measures the amount of potassium in the blood and can help to determine whether your potassium levels are within normal limits.Why test potassium?Unless this is ordered as a retest or for a specific reason, we recommend ordering this as part of a health test.Health checkDiscover your risk factors for lifestyle diseases in time to do something about them.Lifestyle factors You eat a diet low in fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, and beans and high in sodium and processed foods.MonitoringMonitor changes to your blood values as you make lifestyle changes, and take supplements or medication.MedicationsYou take a drug, such as NSAIDs, that increases the need for potassium.What causes low potassium?Low potassium (hypokalaemia) can be caused by vomiting, diarrhea, some medications, such as corticosteroids, and certain health conditions. Decreased urinary potassium levels can be caused by drugs such as NSAIDs, beta-blockers and lithium, as well as by the adrenal glands producing too little aldosterone.What causes high potassium?High potassium levels (hyperkalemia) can be caused by a high intake of fruits and vegetables, as well as by certain health conditions and medications. Diabetes, kidney disease, infection, and dehydration can all cause high serum potassium, as can potassium supplements and medications such as NSAIDs, ACE inhibitors, and beta-blockers. Urine levels should also be considered. High urinary potassium can be caused by, among other things, kidney disease, eating disorders, and muscle damage.More informationA variety of circumstances can falsely elevate potassium. These include the way a test is collected and processed. Clenching and relaxing the fist during the test can falsely elevate potassium. Delaying blood samples or rough handling can cause potassium to leak from blood cells. If the results are abnormal, a healthcare practitioner may suggest repeating the test.InstructionsNo advance preparation is needed for this test.On the day of the testRemember to take I.D. with you when going to take a test. Arrive early and sit down quietly for 15 minutes before the test is taken. 

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14 March 2023
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Progesterone

Progesterone
What is progesterone?Progesterone is an important hormone, especially for women. It interacts with other hormones and affects fertility, metabolism, mood, and brain function.  Low progesterone can result in a relatively higher amount of estrogen to progesterone, often referred to as ‘progesterone deficiency and estrogen excess’.  Symptoms of deficiency include fatigue, weight gain, tender breasts, moodiness, mental and physical fatigue, and miscarriage. In men, deficiency is associated with hair loss and prostate cancer. Falling levels are normal as we age.For a more in-depth view of progesterone as well as other sex hormones and their metabolites, stress hormones and their metabolites, and melatonin, we recommend a dried urine (Dutch) test.Why test progesterone?For suspected miscarriage, progesterone can be ordered alone. Otherwise, unless this is a retest or for a specific reason, we recommend ordering progesterone as part of a health test.MiscarriageIf you suspect that you are having a miscarriage - a progesterone test can help to confirm this.Menstrual problemsIf you have irregular periods and amenorrhea or have headaches, mood swings, pain, sleep problems, sore breasts, and food cravings around the time of your period.OvulationTo see if you have ovulated – for this purpose do the test on day 21. Consider instead our Fertility test.What does the result mean?The results of progesterone tests need to be interpreted in the context of the reason for testing and the day of the woman’s menstrual cycle or stage of pregnancy. Progesterone usually rises around ovulation and for a few days afterward. It continues to rise with pregnancy or drops to initiate menstruation.If progesterone levels do not rise and fall, a woman may not be ovulating or having periods. This may cause infertility.What causes low progesterone?Several things can cause low progesterone, including decreased ovarian function, amenorrhea, ectopic pregnancy, and recent/ongoing miscarriage.Progesterone is made from cholesterol which is converted into another substance called pregnenolone in the cells and then into progesterone.  Pregnenolone and progesterone can alternatively be converted into stress hormones, estrogen, and androgens, otherwise known as male sex hormones.  Factors including stress/perceived stress, abnormal hormone levels, and aging can all shift these pathways out of balance.  Several things can cause low progesterone, including exercise, aging, obesity, and menopause.What causes high progesterone?Ovarian cysts, non-viable pregnancy, overproduction of progesterone, and some health conditions can increase progesterone.More informationProgesterone levels will rise during pregnancies of multiples (e.g., twins). Taking hormones can affect the results of this test. High progesterone can also be caused by stress, caffeine, and smoking. Symptoms include low sex drive, feeling stressed, heavy periods, and depression.InstructionsDo not do this test if you are taking hormonal contraceptives, as they will render the results inaccurate.On the dayRemember to take I.D. with you when going to take a test.  If you are a menstruating woman, make a note of the day of your cycle on the day of the test.  This may be helpful later. Arrive early and sit down quietly for 15 minutes before the test is taken.  

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14 March 2023
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Prolactin

Prolactin
What is prolactin?Prolactin is a hormone produced by the pituitary gland. The pituitary is a small organ at the base of the brain. Prolactin’s main function is to produce milk after childbirth. It is also linked with fertility, menstruation, fat metabolism, fluid regulation, and sexual satisfaction in both men and women. An abnormal level does not necessarily signify a problem if you have no symptoms.Why test prolactin?Unless this is ordered as a retest or for a specific reason, we recommend ordering this as part of a health test.SymptomsSymptoms of elevated prolactin include an unexplained flow of breast milk, abnormal nipple discharge, the absence of menstrual periods, and infertility in women; and decreased libido/ erectile dysfunction in men.InfertilityProlactin is included in our Fertility package.Low testosteroneProlactin is often tested as a follow-up in men with low testosterone.MonitoringProlactin is tested to monitor the recurrence of a prolactinoma.What do the results mean?Prolactin levels are normally low in men and non-pregnant women. Levels increase during pregnancy and in a variety of health conditions.What causes low prolactin levels?Prolactin levels are normally low in men and non-pregnant women. Low prolactin does not usually need medical treatment. However, to be sure if your level is lower than the reference range, consult your doctor for advice. You may also wish to consult a Nordic Wellth nutritionist for dietary and lifestyle advice.What causes high prolactin levels?High levels of prolactin are normal during pregnancy and whilst breastfeeding. High levels may also be associated with hypothyroidism, extreme exercise, birth control pills, pituitary tumours, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), eating disorders and a variety of health conditions. Stress can also temporarily increase prolactin, especially in men. To avoid this, we recommend sitting down for 15 minutes before taking or retaking a test. Other informationHigh levels of prolactin can lead to insulin resistance. Women of childbearing age tend to have higher prolactin levels than men, and the level varies with the menstrual cycle.Stress caused by illness, chest trauma, seizures, lung cancer, nipple stimulation, and marijuana use may mildly elevate prolactin.Some medications elevate prolactin. These include estrogen, tricyclic antidepressants, risperidone, opiates, amphetamines, hypertension drugs (reserpine, verapamil, methyldopa), and medications that are used to treat gastroesophageal reflux (cimetidine).Medications that can lower prolactin levels include dopamine, levodopa, and ergot alkaloid derivatives.InstructionsThe Day BeforeIt may be prudent to avoid alcohol for the day before the test.On the dayRemember to take I.D. with you when going to take a test. Take this test before 10 am, as results can vary throughout the day. Arrive in good time and sit down quietly for 15 minutes before the test is taken.

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08 March 2023
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PSA

PSA
What is a PSA (prostate-specific antigen) test?PSA - prostate-specific antigen – is a protein produced mainly by cells in the prostate.  It can be a useful indicator or prostate cancer. PSA is found in low amounts in all males. The PSA test is for men only.  It measures the levels of PSA in the blood. Should this test be positive, we can guide men (Stockholm only) to further testing in the public sector.  It is very important that anyone considering taking this test reads Socialstyrelsens riktlinjer first.Why test PSA?Screening 50+This test is often used as a screening tool for prostate cancer in men over 50 years old.Health historyYou have an increased risk of prostate cancer due to family or personal history.MonitoringMonitor a low value or track it over time as you make lifestyle changes or undergo treatments.What causes low PSA?A lower PSA can be a sign that you are at higher risk of prostate cancer, and you need to contact your doctor for a thorough check-up. According to the American Cancer Society, many doctors recommend a prostate biopsy for men whose percent-free PSA is 10% or less and advise men to consider a biopsy if it is between 10% to 25%. Nowadays there are advanced blood tests that can be used as a follow-up test in place of biopsy, if you are in Stockholm, our nutritionists can help you to find a clinic that can undertake this test for free.Long-term use of certain medications that contain Dutasteride and Finasteride (e.g. Propecia, Proscar, Avodart) can cause PSA values to drop by up to 50%. If you take such medications, write this in your notes or let us know.What causes high PSA?Hig PSA (greater than 3 ug/L) means that total PSA is higher than expected in the blood. There are several possible reasons for an elevated PSA level, including inflammation (prostatitis) and prostate cancer.There are several possible reasons for an elevated PSA level, including inflammation (prostatitis) and prostate cancer.  Older men and African American men tend to have higher PSA levels. A high serum PSA result does not alone automatically result in further interventions. Many other factors must be considered, including prostate size, age, family history, digital rectal examination findings, body weight, and health history.  A PSA test cannot diagnose prostate cancer.  InstructionsIf you are having a digital rectal exam, this test should be done first.  It should also be done before, or several weeks after a prostate biopsy as both can increase PSA levels.The day before the testDo not ejaculate for 24 hours before taking the test.On the day of the testRemember to take your ID with you when going to take a test.  Arrive early and sit down quietly for 15 minutes before the test is taken.

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16 March 2023
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Red Blood Cells

Red Blood Cells
What is a red blood cell count?An RBC count is a blood test that measures how many red blood cells (RBCs) you have. RBCs contain hemoglobin, a protein that carries oxygen. How much oxygen your body tissues get depends on how many RBCs you have and how well they work.Why test red blood cells (WBC)?The test can help diagnose different kinds of anemia (low number of RBCs) and other conditions affecting red blood cells.Health checkDiscover factors for lifestyle diseases in time and do something about them.SymptomsA red blood count is often part of a routine check when you have diverse symptoms.MonitoringMonitor changes to your blood values as you make lifestyle changes or undergo treatments.What do the results mean?High and low values can each have several different causes, ranging from smoking to dehydration and tumours, and should be investigated by a doctor.What causes low levels of red blood cells?Low red blood cells can be caused by a number of factors, including missing certain vitamins or minerals in the diet because of not eating enough. Low iron levels in the blood. Major organ problems (including severe heart, lung, kidney, or liver disease), or red blood cells (RBCs) being destroyed by the body before they are replaced.What causes elevated red blood cells?A higher-than-usual level of red blood cells can be caused by a number of health conditions or health-related factors, including smoking, congenital heart disease, or dehydration (for example, from severe diarrhea).More InformationValues that are slightly outside the reference range can be normal. Reference ranges are not perfect and approximately 5% of healthy individuals may have results outside the reference range.InstructionsNo advance preparation is needed for this test.On the day of the test.Always take your ID with you when going for a test. Arrive early and sit down quietly for 15 minutes before the test is taken.

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14 March 2023
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Rheumatoid Factor

Rheumatoid Factor
What is rheumatoid factor?This test measures levels of rheumatoid factor antibodies. Rheumatoid factor (RF) is an autoantibody that is produced by the body’s immune system.  These antibodies attack the body’s own tissue. The presence of this antibody is indicative of inflammatory and autoimmune activity. It is used in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis, often alongside ACPA antibodies (CCP).Why test rheumatoid factor?SymptomsIncluding pain, warmth, swelling, and joint stiffness. An RF test may be repeated when the first test is negative, and symptoms persist.Family historyYou have a family history of rheumatoid arthritis and/or concerns about developing it.Health historyYou have an autoimmune condition or a clinical picture that suggests a test may be useful.What do the results mean?What does a negative test mean?A negative RF test means that you do not have antibodies to rheumatoid factor, but it cannot rule out rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis is a clinical diagnosis made by considering symptoms in conjunction with tests.Around 20% of those with RA will have no detectable RF or very low levels. A CCP antibody test can help to complete the picture and determine whether someone has RA or not. We recommend that those who have symptoms take both tests together.What does a positive test mean?A positive RF test means that you have antibodies to rheumatoid factor. The rheumatoid factor test is looked at together with other lab tests and a person's signs, symptoms, and clinical history. RF is not diagnostic of RA. However, it is present in 70%-90% of patients who have RA.In those who have clinical signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, significant concentrations of rheumatoid factor indicate a high likelihood of RA.More informationThe rheumatoid factor (RF) test is primarily used to help diagnose rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to help distinguish RA from other forms of arthritis or other conditions that cause similar symptoms.Diagnosis of RA relies heavily on the clinical picture, i.e. the signs and symptoms of the disease.  However, some may not be present or follow a typical pattern, especially early in the disease. They may not always be clearly identifiable, since people with RA may also have other disorders, as it is common to have autoantibodies against several tissues. The RF test is one tool among others that can be used to help make a diagnosis when RA is suspected.Rheumatoid factor is the most common test for rheumatoid arthritis, although it has been supplemented (and sometimes replaced) by the newer ACP antibody test (ACPA).  A 2012 study concluded that ‘individuals in the general population with elevated rheumatoid factor have up to 26-fold greater long- term risk of rheumatoid arthritis, and up to 32% 10-year absolute risk of rheumatoid arthritis. These novel findings may lead to the revision of guidelines for early referral to a rheumatologist and early arthritis clinics based on rheumatoid factor testing.Rheumatoid factor can occur in several forms, but the form IgM has proven to have the highest sensitivity in people of European origin * and is found in 60-80% of people with rheumatoid arthritis in the group.InstructionsNo advance preparation is needed for this test.On the day of the testRemember to take I.D. with you when going to take a test.Arrive early and sit down quietly for 15 minutes before the test is taken.

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10 March 2023
Markers

Sedimentation Rate, SR

Sedimentation Rate, SR
Information about sedimentation rate What is Sedimentation Rate?ESR is an indirect measure of inflammation in the body. The test measures the rate of sedimentation (fall) of red blood cells in a tube of blood. After the test, the millimeters of clear plasma at the top of the column after one hour is counted. Red cells usually fall slowly, leaving very little clear plasma. Increased blood protein levels (such as fibrinogen or immunoglobulins, which increase when inflammation is present) cause the red blood cells to drop quickly, increasing the sedimentation rate.Why test sedimentation rate?SymptomsIf you have any symptoms related to inflammation.What causes a low sedimentation rate?Low ESR is usually clinically insignificant. It can also be caused by extremely high white blood cells (leucocytosis), and some protein abnormalities.What causes a high sedimentation rate?Very high ESR is usually caused by something obvious, like an infection. Moderately high levels can be caused by inflammation, kidney problems, anemia, infection, old age, and pregnancy. More informationAge, high or low protein intake, and medications can affect urea levels. Your doctor may monitor your urea and creatinine levels if you take certain medicinesInstructionsOn the day of the testRemember to take your ID with you when going to take a test. 

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13 March 2023
Markers

Serum Iron

Serum Iron
What is serum iron?Iron is an essential nutrient that is required for healthy red blood cell production.  A serum iron test measures the amount of iron in the blood. It is used alongside other iron tests to obtain a picture of your iron status.  Dietary and lifestyle changes can be helpful for both low and high levels of iron.Why test serum iron?Unless this is ordered as a retest or for a specific reason, we recommend ordering this as part of a health test.DietThose who do not eat meat or seafood may have a lower intake of iron.  A diet low in iron, vitamin B12 and folate increases the risk of iron deficiency anemia (IDA).Health checkDiscover your risk factors for lifestyle diseases in time and do something about them. Anemia, iron deficiency and haemochromatosis (excess iron) are common health conditions.MonitoringMonitor changes to your blood values as you make lifestyle changes, take supplements, or undergo treatments.Health historyA personal or family history of either anemia or excess iron makes regular iron tests worthwhile.Heavy periodsHeavy periods increase blood loss and thus the risk of anemia.Pregnancy Pregnant women are at increased risk of anemia.  Healthy iron levels are important for both mother and baby.Athlete/ActiveIron is involved in muscle function, transporting oxygen to the tissues, and the conversion of carbohydrates into energy.SymptomsSymptoms of low iron include low energy, fatigue, rapid heart rate (especially with exercise), dizziness, pale skin, leg cramps, and insomnia. Fatigue, joint pain, abdominal pain, liver disease, irregular heart rhythm, or skin colour changes can indicate high iron – however, symptoms do not always occur.MedicationsYou take a drug, such as hydrocortisone or antacids, which increases the need for iron.What causes low serum iron?Serum iron results must be interpreted alongside other test results.  A low blood iron level is most often caused by iron deficiency anemia (IDA), especially if transferrin or TIBC is high and transferrin saturation is low.  Underlying causes include low stomach acid, low iron intake, and microscopic bleeding. Some long-term diseases cause low iron alongside low transferrin or TIBC.What causes high serum iron?The most common cause is hereditary hemochromatosis. Ingesting high amounts of iron can also cause high iron levels. Other reasons include multiple blood transfusions, viral infections, iron injections, iron conversion problems, lead poisoning, liver disease, and kidney disease.InstructionsThe day before the testIf you take iron supplements, avoid them for 24 hours before doing this test.The day of the testRemember to take I.D. with you when going to take a test. Take this test before 10am. Results can fluctuate throughout the day. If you are a woman who has menstrual cycles it can be helpful to note down the day of your cycle.  

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08 March 2023
Markers

SHBG

SHBG
What is sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG)?Sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is a protein produced by the liver that binds tightly to the hormones testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and Estradiol (a type of estrogen). SHBG transports these hormones in the blood as biologically inactive forms. This test measures the level of SHBG in the blood and is most often used to help evaluate testosterone deficiency or excess.When your SHBG levels are high, your body has fewer free sex hormones at its disposal, decreasing their effects. When SHBG is low your body has more free sex hormones at its disposal. SHBG transports these hormones in the blood as biologically inactive forms.Why test sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG)?Unless this is ordered as a retest or for a specific reason, we recommend ordering this as part of a health test.SymptomsIf you have signs and/or symptoms of having too much or too little testosterone. This test is valuable for suspected low testosterone in men, as well as for women with signs of excess androgens.What causes low SHBG?A low SHGB indicates that more total testosterone is unbound (bioactive) and available to the tissues than the total testosterone level test suggests. Men typically have lower SHBG levels than women. It is important to consider the results of this test in the context of other tests and the clinical picture. SHBG can be important in determining whether someone has a hormone problem. The following may lower SHBG: high insulin levels, obesity, high prolactin levels, inflammation, hypothyroidism, Cushing Disease (abnormally high levels of cortisol), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, acromegaly, (too much growth hormone in adults), androgen steroid use, and genetic factors.In men, low SHBG often means high free testosterone, which can lead to symptoms like fluid retention, acne, increased appetite, weight gain, muscle mass, and mood swings. Excess estrogen in men can cause erectile dysfunction and larger breast tissue.In women, low SHBG can lead to too much available testosterone, and this can result in weight gain, excess facial and body hair, acne, mood swings, and menstrual changes. Too much available estrogen can lead to irregular periods, mood swings, bloating, and breast tenderness.Women with PCOS may have low SHBG levels and tend to have insulin resistance, be overweight, and have excess androgen production.What causes high SHBG?A high SHGB indicates that less total testosterone is unbound bioactive and available to the tissues than the total testosterone level test suggests. High SHGB levels decrease the effects of sex hormones available in the body (especially testosterone) by binding to them. SHBG reduces the availability of testosterone, so some people may wish to lower their SHBG levels. SHBG can be important in determining whether someone has a hormone problem. A man’s SHBG level usually increases with age as his testosterone levels drop.SHBG can be important in determining whether someone has a hormone problem. Liver conditions, hyperthyroidism and raised T3 and/or T4, eating disorders, HRT, decreased sex hormone production, pregnancy, growth hormone deficiency, alcohol consumption, smoking, and Alzheimer’s disease can all increase SHBG levels.More informationIn men, about 45% to 65% of testosterone in the blood is normally bound to SHBG, with the remainder weakly and reversibly bound to albumin (the main protein in the blood). Only about 2% to 3% of testosterone is immediately available to the tissues as free testosterone.  Testosterone that is weakly bound to albumin is also bioavailable and can be readily taken up by the body's tissues.In women, slightly more testosterone (66% to 78%) is bound to SHBG.  In women, SHBG plays an integral role in regulating the levels of bioavailable male sex hormones (androgens) and estrogens circulating throughout the body.  As SHBG has a higher affinity for the androgens testosterone and DHT, women with low SHBG may have signs and symptoms related to androgen excess.A total testosterone test does not distinguish between bound and unbound testosterone but determines the overall quantity of testosterone. In many cases, this is sufficient to evaluate excess or deficient testosterone production. However, if a person's SHBG level is not normal, then the total testosterone may be an inaccurate representation of the amount of testosterone that is available to the person's tissues. An SHBG test may be performed when a person's signs and symptoms do not correlate with the results of a total testosterone test.InstructionsNo advance preparation is needed for this test. On the day of the testRemember to take I.D. with you when going to take a test. Do not work out before going to do this test, as this may affect your results. Arrive early and sit down quietly before taking this test.  

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14 March 2023
Markers

Sodium

Sodium
What is sodium?Sodium is an electrolyte that is present in all body fluids.  The highest concentration is found in the blood.  Sodium is essential for normal body function and, along with potassium and calcium, helps cells to work properly and to regulate the amount of fluid in the body.Sodium is essential for a number of body functions, including muscle and nerve function. Most people get sufficient (or excess) dietary sodium from the foods they eat. The body tries to keep blood sodium levels strictly balanced with the help of mechanisms including hormonal regulation that prevents dehydration and triggering thirst if sodium levels are slightly low.A sodium blood test measures the level of sodium in the blood.  This test can help to evaluate electrolyte balance and determine whether your sodium is within normal limits.  Urine levels should also be considered.Why test sodium?Unless this is ordered as a retest or for a specific reason, we recommend ordering this as part of a health test.Health checkDiscover your risk factors for lifestyle diseases in time to do something about them.Lifestyle factorsYou drink a lot of alcohol and/or eat a diet low in nutrient-rich foods like fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds and beans and high in processed foods and sodium.MonitoringMonitor changes to your blood values as you make lifestyle changes, and take supplements or medication.SymptomsYou are suffering from dehydration, high blood pressure, or edema.Athlete/ActiveMaintaining the correct balance of electrolytes in your blood is crucial to performance.What causes low sodium?Hyponatremia can have many different causes. The most common cause of low sodium in otherwise healthy people is sodium loss (for example diarrhea, excessive sweating, use of diuretics, edema, endurance exercise, adrenal problems, excess water intake, and certain medications).Low sodium levels are more common in the elderly. Serious health conditions associated with low sodium include heart failure, liver cirrhosis, kidney damage, and blood loss.What causes high sodium?Known as hypernatremia, a high blood sodium level is nearly always caused by dehydration (not replacing lost water with sufficient water. Rarely, it is caused by increasing salt intake without enough water.Other reasons include Cushing syndrome and a condition caused by too little ADH called diabetes insipidus. Urine levels should also be considered. There are a number of reasons for decreased urinary sodium including dehydration, and heart, kidney, and liver problems. More information Some drugs can increase sodium levels. These include anabolic steroids, antibiotics, corticosteroids, laxatives, cough medicines, and oral contraceptives. Drugs that can decrease sodium levels include ACE inhibitors, diuretics, carbamazepine, heparin, and tricyclic antidepressants. Instructions No advance preparation is needed for this test. On the day of the test Remember to take I.D. with you when going to take a test. Arrive early and sit down quietly for 15 minutes before the test is taken.  

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14 March 2023
Markers

Testosterone

Testosterone
What is testosterone?Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone. It is produced mainly by the testicles, but also by the adrenal glands, and is responsible for male physical characteristics. Although it is considered to be a "male" sex hormone, it is important for women’s health, too.  Testosterone testing is used to diagnose several conditions in men, women, girls, and boys.Why test testosterone? Unless this is ordered as a retest or for a specific reason, we recommend ordering this as part of a health test.AthleteTestosterone is important for muscle growth, fat loss, and athletic performance.SymptomsMen: Decreased sex drive, erectile dysfunction, infertility, delayed or early puberty, unwanted hair.Women: Irregular/absent menstruation, infertility, endometriosis, low voice, unwanted hair growth, increased body fat, sleep problems, decreased motivation.MonitoringMonitor changes to your blood values as you make lifestyle changes or take supplements.What causes low testosterone?Aging, heavy drinking, stress, sleep problems, high consumption of processed foods, obesity, inflammation (IL-6), and prostaglandins A1, A2, and E2), soy-phytoestrogens and broad beans can all lower testosterone, as can certain health conditions, like severe hypothyroidism, sleep apnea, cirrhosis of the liver, chronic kidney failure and some drugs, such as statins and chemotherapy.What causes high testosterone?High testosterone levels in males can indicate testicular tumours. Increased testosterone in boys is usually the cause of early puberty. In women, elevated testosterone can indicate polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or an ovarian or adrenal gland tumour.InstructionsThe day beforeFast (do not eat) for at least 10-12 hours before taking this test.  Go to bed at the normal time today.On the dayTake this test before 10:00 a.m., as testosterone varies during the day.  Remember to take your I.D. with you when going to take a test.  If you take medication that does not need to be taken in the early am, take it after doing your blood test. Thyroxine should always be taken after your blood draw.  

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22 July 2022
Markers

Thyroglobulin Antibody

Thyroglobulin Antibody
Information about thyroglobulin antibodies What are thyroglobulin antibodies?Thyroglobulin is a precursor to the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3) and stores these hormones in the thyroid gland. Elevated thyroglobulin antibodies are ​​seen in persons with hyperthyroidism and Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis (thyroid inflammation and hypothyroid). This test measures levels of thyroglobulin.  This is tested to help diagnose and monitor autoimmune thyroid diseases, to distinguish these from other forms of thyroid disease, and to help guide treatment decisions.Why test thyroglobulin antibodies?Thyroid disorder You have a thyroid disorder and want to determine whether you also have an autoimmune disease, or to monitor your antibody levels.SymptomsYou have symptoms of a thyroid disorder, even if your results are within the normal range.PregnancyTwenty percent of pregnant women have elevated antibodies without knowing about it, according to the American Thyroid Association.Health checkDiscover your risk factors for lifestyle diseases in time to do something about them.Health historyYou have a personal or family history of thyroid disorders.What does a negative thyroid antibody test mean?A negative test result means that at the time of testing, thyroglobulin antibodies were not present in the sample or were present in levels that are not considered clinically significant.  Some people who have autoimmune thyroid disease do not produce autoantibodies. We recommend that you test all relevant thyroid markers for a full picture. Repeat testing at a later date can be done if symptoms persist.Common symptoms of hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) include fatigue, feeling cold, often cold hands, feet, and the tip of the nose, constipation, dry skin, weight gain or difficulty losing weight, puffy face, hoarseness, muscle weakness, stiff and achy muscles, slowed heart rate, dry and thinning hair, poor memory, and depression.What does a positive thyroid antibody test mean?This means that thyroglobulin antibodies were found in your sample. This may indicate an autoimmune thyroid disorder. TG antibodies, together with TPO antibodies are often used to diagnose an autoimmune thyroid disorder called Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis, the most common cause of underactive thyroid function. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is mainly associated with symptoms of low thyroid (hypothyroidism). TSH is normally high and T3 and T4 are often normal to low. Graves’ disease, on the other hand, is usually associated with symptoms of overactive thyroid, where TSH is low and T3 and T4 are normal to high.   Common symptoms of hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) include fatigue, feeling cold, often cold hands, feet, and tip of the nose, constipation, dry skin, weight gain or difficulty losing weight, puffy face, hoarseness, muscle weakness, stiff and achy muscles, slowed heart rate, dry and thinning hair, poor memory, and depression. InstructionsNo advance preparation is required for this test.  Remember to take ID. with you when going to take a test.

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14 March 2023
Markers

Total Cholesterol

Total Cholesterol
What is cholesterol?Cholesterol is a steroid that is essential for life and good health. Cell membranes in all our tissues and organs are made of cholesterol and cholesterol is also used to make hormones and form bile acids required to absorb nutrients from food. Cholesterol circulates in the blood, inside lipoprotein particles. This test measures the total amount of cholesterol in the blood.Why test cholesterol?Health CheckDiscover your risk factors for lifestyle diseases in time to do something about them.Family HistoryFamily history of cardiovascular disease, especially at a young age, can increase the risk of heart disease.Health HistoryHistory of heart attack, stroke, or high cholesterol.What do the results mean? Maintaining healthy cholesterol levels is essential for good health.  Food high in trans fats and excess saturated fats raises cholesterol levels and has the potential to negatively impact health.What causes low cholesterol?Low cholesterol means that you have less cholesterol circulating in the blood than expected. The body needs cholesterol to make certain hormones such as vitamin D and some of the substances needed to digest foods. Some studies have found that low cholesterol increases the risk of anxiety and depression, but the association of low cholesterol with any health condition is still under debate.Low cholesterol may also be associated with some cancers, but such an association does not mean that low cholesterol causes cancer. In pregnant women, low cholesterol may increase the risk of premature birth and/or low birth weight.What causes high cholesterol?High levels of saturated fat in the diet can increase blood cholesterol, especially in obese individuals. Other factors include smoking, lack of exercise, stress, and genetics. Systemic chronic inflammation also raises cholesterol - and high cholesterol can induce inflammation. Familial hypercholesterolemia is a disease caused by mutations that affect the clearance of LDL cholesterol from the body and can thus increase LDL cholesterol levels.Finally, hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid gland), poor metabolism and the use of fats, early-stage diabetes, insulin resistance, and kidney problems can both increase cholesterol levels. Both naturally randomized genetic studies and randomized intervention trials consistently demonstrate that healthy cholesterol levels reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke and help to maintain a healthy heart. The more Apo B-containing lipoproteins, such as LDL, that are circulating in the blood, the higher the risk of heart disease.InstructionsNo advance preparation is needed for this test. Remember to take your ID with you when going to take a test.

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13 March 2023
Markers

Total T3

Total T3
What is Total T3 (TT3)?T3 (triiodothyronine) is a thyroid hormone produced directly by the thyroid and by the conversion of another thyroid hormone known as T4 (thyroxin). Together, T3 and T4 regulate your body temperature, metabolism, and heart rate.Most of your T3 is attached to proteins.  The part that is bound to proteins is known as Total T3 (TT3). This is the part that is tested here.  T3, both total and free, is measured to detect a problem with your thyroid hormones.Why test TT3?Unless this is ordered as a retest or for a specific reason, we recommend ordering this as part of a health test.Health checkDiscover your risk factors for lifestyle diseases in time to do something about them.Full thyroid panelTT3 is an important marker included in a complete Thyroid Panel.SymptomsThyroid disorder can present symptoms such as weakness, fatigue, sleeping problems, increased sensitivity to heat or cold, weight loss or gain, dry or puffy skin, hair loss, increased heart rate, or constipation.MonitoringTo monitor an existing thyroid condition as you make changes to your diet or take medication.  You can send your results to your doctor.What do the results mean?Thyroid tests cannot be interpreted individually.  They must be interpreted considering your other thyroid test results and preferably medical history.  A normal T3 suggests that you are producing enough T4 and converting it adequately to T3. However, this alone does not rule out thyroid problems. If you still have symptoms and your TSH, free T4, and free T3 are normal, we recommend testing your thyroid antibodies.What causes low total T3 levels?Low total T3 means that you have less T3 than expected. This may be because the thyroid is having trouble producing T3 and/or converting the primary thyroid hormone T4 (thyroxine) into T3. Lower levels of thyroid hormones tend to indicate an underactive gland (hypothyroidism). This test result alone is not diagnostic but will be considered alongside the results of other thyroid hormones and antibodies.Calorie restriction can significantly lower thyroid hormones, as can stress, low carbohydrate diets, low estrogen, insulin resistance, chronic pain, low testosterone, low growth hormone, and alcohol. Nutrient deficiencies that can affect the conversion of T4 to T3, resulting in lower T3 include iodine, selenium, zinc, iron, chromium, copper, vitamin A,  and B vitamins.  Some supplements can lower thyroid hormones. Note that reference ranges may be different during pregnancy.What Causes high total T3 levels?A high total T3 level suggests an overproduction of thyroid hormone (hyperthyroidism).  It may also be associated with iodine deficiency.More informationThyroid problems include hyperthyroidism (overproduction of thyroid hormones), hypothyroidism (underproduction of thyroid hormones), Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis, and Graves Disease (two autoimmune thyroid conditions).InstructionsNo preparation is needed prior to this test.On the day of the testDo not take your thyroid medication until after you have taken this test. Always take your I.D. with you when going to take a test. Do not work out before going to do this test, as this may affect your results.Take this test before 10 am, as results can vary throughout the day.  If you are repeating a test, try to take it at the same time of day.Arrive early and sit down quietly for 15 minutes before the test is taken.

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13 March 2023
Markers

Total T4

Total T4
What is Total T4 (TT4)?T4 (Thyroxine) is a thyroid hormone that is produced by the thyroid gland and plays an important role in the body’s metabolism.  Nearly all the T4 (and T3) found in the blood is bound to protein. The rest is free (unbound) and is the biologically active form of the hormone. A total T4 test measures the total amount of T4 in the blood.Why test TT4 (total T4)?Health checkDiscover your risk factors for lifestyle diseases in time to do something about them.Full thyroid panelTT4 is an important part of a complete thyroid panel.SymptomsSymptoms of thyroid disorder include depression, weakness, fatigue, sleeping problems, sensitivity to heat/cold, dry skin, hair loss, increased heart rate, and infertility.MonitoringMonitor an existing thyroid condition as you make dietary and lifestyle changes or take medication.  We can send any results to your doctor.What do the results mean?What causes low total T4?Low Total T4 indicates that the thyroid does not produce enough thyroid hormone (hypothyroidism). Low T4 may indicate iodine deficiency.What causes high total T4?High Total T4 suggests an excess production of thyroid hormone (hyperthyroidism).More informationThyroid hormones play an important role in the body's metabolism.  T4 (thyroxine) is an important hormone that is produced by the thyroid gland and transported by the blood to the body's cells.  T4 can be either free (unbound) or bound to protein in your blood.  Nowadays, most health providers consider free T4 to be the most important test. However, measuring total T4 and other thyroid markers provides a more complete picture. If the thyroid gland produces too much hormone, symptoms are those of a raised metabolism, including rapid heart rate, sweating, increased appetite, weight loss, tremors, and poor sleep. Low thyroid hormone has the opposite effect, with side effects such as feeling cold, fatigue, weight gain, hair loss, and constipation, and the other signs and symptoms noted above.TSH stimulates the production and release of T4 (primarily) and T3 from the thyroid gland.  Thyroid health is somewhat complex and your practitioner should take into account the following:Blood test results: Free T4, free T3, TSH. Do you produce enough thyroid hormone? Is your T4 converting properly to T3? Is your TSH within an optimal range?Symptoms: If the above is within the normal range, but you have symptoms or are pregnant, thyroid antibody testing should be undertaken.Individual differences and your results: Do you have symptoms and your results are low or high normal? Perhaps these levels are too low or high for you.InstructionsNo advance preparation is needed for this test.On the day of the testDo not take your thyroid medication until after you have taken this test.  Remember to take I.D. with you when going to take a test. Do not work out before going to do this test, as this may affect your results.Take this test before 10 am, as results can vary throughout the day.  If you are repeating a test, try to take it at the same time of day.  

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14 March 2023
Markers

TPO Antibodies

TPO Antibodies
What are anti-TPO antibodies (TPO-AB)?Thyroid autoantibodies develop when a person's immune system mistakenly targets parts of the thyroid gland or thyroid proteins, leading to chronic inflammation of the thyroid (thyroiditis), tissue damage, and/or disruption of thyroid function. Many people suffer from autoimmune thyroiditis.Thyroid antibody tests are primarily ordered to help detect an autoimmune thyroid disease and to distinguish it from other forms of thyroid dysfunction.An anti-TPO test measures levels of thyroid peroxidase antibodies (also known as TPO-antibodies). It detects the presence of thyroid antibodies usually associated with hypothyroidism (low thyroid hormone production) and is an important part of a full thyroid panel for someone with symptoms of thyroid disease. Hashimoto’s is the most common cause of hypothyroidism and the most common thyroid disorder.Why test anti-TPO antibodies (TPO-AB)?Unless this is ordered as a retest or for a specific reason, we recommend ordering this as part of a health test. Thyroid disorderYou have a thyroid disorder and want to see if you also have an autoimmune disease, or you wish to monitor your antibody levelsSymptomsYou have symptoms of a thyroid disorder, even if your results are in-rangePregnancy 20% of pregnant women have elevated antibodies without knowing about it, according to the American Thyroid AssociationHealth CheckDiscover your risk factors for lifestyle diseases in time to do something about themHealth HistoryYou have a personal or family history of thyroid disordersWhat does it mean if my thyroid antibody test is negative?Negative results mean that thyroid autoantibodies are not present in the blood at the time of testing.  Some people who have autoimmune thyroid disease do not have autoantibodies. Repeat testing at a later date can be done if symptoms persist.What does it mean if my thyroid antibody test is positive?The presence of thyroid antibodies suggests that you have an autoimmune thyroid disorder. The higher the level, the more likely this is. In this case we will refer you to your doctor and can continue to work with you to make lifestyle and dietary changes that will help.More InformationReference ranges may vary between laboratories. If you plan to order this test regularly for monitoring purposes, it is best to have it done by the same laboratory each time, using the same methodology.InstructionsNo advance preparation is required for this test.On the day of the testRemember to take I.D. with you when going to take a test.

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13 March 2023
Markers

TRak

TRak
What are thyroid-stimulating antibodies?Thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibodies are also known as thyrotropin receptor antibodies and TSH receptor antibodies.  The so-called ‘TRAK’ test detects the presence of thyroid antibodies associated with hyperthyroidism and is an important part of a full thyroid panel for someone with symptoms of thyroid problems. Thyroid antibody tests are primarily ordered to help diagnose autoimmune hyperactive thyroid disease and to distinguish it from other forms of thyroid dysfunction.  Autoimmune is when the body attacks its own cells. Thyroid autoantibodies develop when a person's immune system mistakenly targets components of the thyroid gland or thyroid proteins, leading to chronic inflammation of the thyroid (thyroiditis), tissue damage, and/or disruption of thyroid function.  Trak is a method for measuring TSH-receptor antibodies.  This test is ordered when a person has hyperthyroidism, to see if the cause of the elevated thyroid function is an autoimmune disease (Grave’s disease).Why test TRAK? Unless this is ordered as a retest or for a specific reason, we recommend ordering this as part of a health test.  You may want to check whether you have TRAK antibodies for these reasons:Health historyYou have been or have previously been diagnosed with hyperthyroidism and wish to check your antibody levelsSymptomsYou have symptoms of hyperthyroidism, even if your thyroid results are within rangePregnancy20% of pregnant women have elevated antibodies without knowing about it, according to the American Thyroid Association.Health checkThis test can be included as part of a health and wellness check, for example during pregnancy.Family historyYou have a family history of hyperthyroidism and you have symptoms.What does it mean if my thyroid antibody test is negative?A negative result means that thyroid autoantibodies are not present in the blood at the time of testing.  However, some people who have autoimmune thyroid disease do not have autoantibodies. Repeat testing at a later date can be done if symptoms persist.What does it mean if my thyroid antibody test is positive?This means that thyroglobulin antibodies were found in your sample. This may indicate an autoimmune thyroid disorder called Graves’ disease, which is an overproduction of thyroid hormones or hyperthyroidism.Graves’ Disease is usually associated with symptoms of an overactive thyroid. T3 and T4 are usually high, and TSH is low. Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis on the other hand is mainly associated with symptoms of low thyroid function and high TSH (hypothyroidism).Common symptoms of hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid function) include unwanted/unexpected weight loss, rapid heartbeat, irregular heartbeat, nervousness, anxiety, irritability, tremor, enlarged thyroid gland (called goiter, that can be seen as a swelling at the base of your neck), sweating, changes in menstrual patterns, increased sensitivity to heat, changes in bowel movement especially more frequent ones, fatigue, muscle weakness, difficulty sleeping, thinning skin and brittle hair.More informationReference ranges may vary between laboratories. If you plan to order this test regularly for monitoring purposes, it is best to have it done by the same laboratory each time, using the same methodology.InstructionsNo advance preparation is required for this test.On the day of the testDo not take your thyroid medication until after you have taken this test.  Remember to take your I.D. with you when going to take a test. Do not work out before going to do this test, as this may affect your results.Take this test before 10 am, as results can vary throughout the day.  If you are repeating a test, try to take it at the same time of day.  Arrive early and sit down quietly for 15 minutes before the test is taken.

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13 March 2023
Markers

Transferrin

Transferrin
What is transferrin?Transferrin is the main protein in the blood that binds to iron and transports it throughout the body.  A transferrin test measures the level of transferrin in the blood.  This test is used alongside other tests to evaluate iron status.Why test transferrin?Unless this is ordered as a retest or for a specific reason, we recommend ordering this as part of a health test. Transferrin is an important part of a complete iron panel and is included in all tests that include iron markers DietThose who do not eat meat or seafood may have a lower iron intake. A diet low in iron, vitamin B12, and folate increases the risk of Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA).Health checkDiscover your risk factors for lifestyle diseases in time to do something about them.  Anemia (low iron) and hemochromatosis (excess iron) are both common health conditionsMonitoringMonitor changes to your blood values as you make lifestyle changes, take supplements, or undergo treatments.Health historyA personal or family history of either anemia or excess iron makes regular iron tests worthwhile.Heavy periodsHeavy periods increase blood loss, and thus the risk of anemia.PregnancyPregnant women are at increased risk of anemia.  Healthy iron levels are important for both mother and baby.AthleteIron is involved in muscle function, transporting oxygen to the tissues, and the conversion of carbohydrates into energy.SymptomsSymptoms of low iron include low energy, fatigue, rapid heart rate (especially with exercise), dizziness, pale skin, leg cramps, and insomnia. Fatigue, joint pain, abdominal pain, liver disease, irregular heart rhythm, or skin colour changes can indicate high iron – however, symptoms do not always occur.What do the results mean?Transferrin tests are evaluated in the light of other iron tests. As iron decreases, transferrin levels rise as the body tries to compensate by making more ferritin to increase iron transport.What causes low transferrin?Serum iron results must be interpreted in the light of other blood tests. Low transferrin may be caused by certain conditions, such as iron overload (hemochromatosis), inflammation and malnutrition, liver disease and kidney disorders.What causes high transferrin?The most common cause of high transferrin is iron deficiency.More informationRecent blood transfusions, iron injections, and transfusions can all affect the results of iron tests. InstructionsThe day before the testIf you take iron supplements, avoid them for 24 hours before doing this test.On the day of the testRemember to take I.D. with you when going to take a test.  Take this test in the morning before 10am. If you are a woman who has menstrual cycles it can be helpful to note down the day of your cycle.  

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14 March 2023
Markers

Transferrin Saturation %

Transferrin Saturation %
What is transferrin saturation %?Transferrin Saturation % is an estimate, based on other iron markers, of how many of transferrin iron-binding sites are being used.In normal iron status, transferrin is usually one-third saturated with iron, so roughly two-thirds of its capacity is held in reserve. The iron concentration may be divided by the transferrin concentration, not the TIBC. This similar estimate is usually called the transferrin index.)Why test transferrin saturation %?Unless this is ordered as a retest or for a specific reason, we recommend ordering this as part of a health test.DietThose who do not eat meat or seafood may have a lower intake of iron.  A diet low in iron, vitamin B12, and folate increases the risk of Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA).Health checkDiscover your risk factors for lifestyle diseases in time to do something about them. Anemia (low iron) and hemochromatosis (excess iron) are both common health conditions. MonitoringMonitor changes to your blood values as you make lifestyle changes, take supplements, or undergo treatments.Health historyA personal or family history of either anemia or excess iron makes regular iron tests worthwhile.Heavy periodsHeavy periods increase blood loss, and thus the risk of anemia.PregnancyPregnant women are at increased risk of anemia.  Healthy iron levels are important for both mother and baby.AthleteIron is involved in muscle function, transporting oxygen to the tissues, and the conversion of carbohydrates into energy.SymptomsSymptoms of low iron include low energy, fatigue, rapid heart rate (especially with exercise), dizziness, pale skin, leg cramps, and insomnia. Fatigue, joint pain, abdominal pain, liver disease, irregular heart rhythm, or skin colour changes can indicate high iron – however, symptoms do not always occur.What causes low transferrin saturation%?A low transferrin saturation % is most often caused by iron deficiency anemia (IDA).What causes high transferrin% saturation?High transferrin saturation is most often caused by iron overload (hemochromatosis).  It can also be caused by iron poisoning.More informationRecent blood transfusions, iron injections and transfusions can all affect the results of iron tests.InstructionsThe day before the testIf you take iron supplements, avoid them for 24 hours before doing this testOn the day of the testRemember to take your ID with you when going to take a test.  

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07 March 2023
Markers

Transglutaminase

Transglutaminase
What is anti-tissue transglutaminase (anti-Ttg)?Transglutaminase antibodies are found in the blood of people with an autoimmune disease called celiac disease. Celiac disease causes a response to gluten, a protein found in wheat, rye, and barley. Gluten consumption triggers celiac disease in susceptible people. Anti-tissue transglutaminase activity detects antibodies to tissue transglutaminase, an enzyme that causes the cross-linking of these proteins. It is considered the most sensitive and specific blood test for celiac disease.  This test is measured alongside a test for IGA deficiency, which can affect the results of the test.   Why Test Anti-Ttg (Anti-Tissue Transglutaminase)?Family historyNICE Guidelines (UK) recommend considering all immediate family members of celiac disease for celiac screening.Symptoms Symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation, poor growth, weight loss, fatigue, irritability, and behaviour problems.Health ConditionNICE recommends screening those with type 1 diabetes, autoimmune thyroid disease, autoimmune liver disease, growth problems, frequent mouth ulcers, prolonged fatigue, persistent abdominal/gastrointestinal symptoms, unexplained iron, B12, and folate deficiencies, unexpected weight loss, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).ReactionsYou think that you react to gluten-containing foods and would like to confirm this.Diagnosis If you have been diagnosed with celiac disease we recommend doing a Cyrex test known as Cyrex Array 3. This can be used to identify cross-reactions.What do the results mean?Positive/borderlineA positive or borderline test result suggests a person may have celiac disease and should visit a doctor to discuss the results. Positive and borderline tests may be followed by an intestinal biopsy in order to make a definitive diagnosis of celiac disease.  NegativeYou have no antibodies to the marker tested. A negative test cannot rule out celiac disease or gluten sensitivity. As only one marker can be tested for in Sweden, we may recommend following up with Cyrex testing.Cyrex labs specialises in tests for autoimmune conditions and other chronic diseases, in particular celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS).  People with celiac disease who eat gluten almost always have these antibodies in their blood. Although Cyrex is not yet clinically validated for use in the healthcare system, we have used it clinically for several years and find it very helpful, especially because many people react to different types of gluten.More InformationMany people react – or think they react – to gluten-containing foods.  Nordic Wellth’s basic gluten package includes the two recommended tests, namely tissue transglutaminase (tTg) test, and Total IGA.  Based on the results of both tests, our doctor will determine whether further testing is needed.You must be eating a moderate amount of gluten every day for 2-3 weeks before taking this test in order for it to be accurate. As hospital lab tests offer a limited number of gluten markers, we regularly send tests for our clients to Cyrex Labs in the USA, which tests for several different types of transglutaminase and 20 additional NCGS markers including different types of gliadin, glutenin, wheat, wheatgerm, Gluteomorphin, and Prodynorphin.  In our clinical experience, this is an extremely useful test. InstructionsEnsure that you have been consuming gluten every day for around 3 weeks before taking this test.On the day of the testRemember to take I.D. with you when going to take a test.

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16 March 2023
Markers

Triglycerides

Triglycerides
What are triglycerides?Triglycerides are fats found in your blood. They are a major source of energy.  They come from the foods we eat. High triglyceride levels are a risk factor for metabolic syndrome, diabetes, fatty liver disease, and pancreatitis. Triglyceride test results must be interpreted in the light of other test results, the reference range of the lab where the testing is done, your age, gender, symptoms, and health conditions.It is more dangerous for women than for men to have high triglycerides. This test can be ordered as a package or individually with other tests to form your own package.  Testing is simple and easy.Why test triglycerides?Unless this is ordered as a retest or for a specific reason, we recommend ordering this as part of a health test.Health checkDiscover your risk factors for lifestyle diseases in time to do something about them.Health historyYou have an increased risk of heart problems or diabetes due to a family and personal history of high triglycerides, heart disease, or diabetes.Lifestyle factorsYou eat a poor diet, smoke, drink excess alcohol or take drugs.MonitoringMonitor changes to your blood values as you make lifestyle changes, supplement or undergo treatments.What do the results mean?Results have to be interpreted with consideration to other test results. Different labs have different reference ranges. What causes low triglycerides?Lower triglyceride levels tend to be associated with better health outcomes. Very low triglycerides can be associated with liver/biliary dysfunction, thyroid hyperfunction, autoimmune processes, and adrenal hyperfunction.What causes high triglycerides?A high triglyceride level is associated with poor dietary habits, excess alcohol consumption, genetics, and other diseases. High triglycerides are associated, among other things, with atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, poor metabolism and utilization of fats, early-stage diabetes, primary hypothyroidism, fatty liver, and metabolic syndrome.  Extremely high triglycerides will need treatment, for which you will need to visit your doctor. We also recommend visiting a nutritional therapist, who can continue to work with you to make lifestyle and dietary changes.More informationDiabetics with uncontrolled blood sugar may have very high triglycerides. Meals can dramatically change triglycerides, increasing 5 to 10 times compared with fasting levels just a few hours after eating. Levels vary daily and this is normal. Medications like corticosteroids, protease inhibitors for HIV, beta-blockers, and estrogens can increase blood triglyceride levels.  Non-fasting levels might provide a more representative figure.  However, as the interpretation of such results is not yet clear, fasting is still recommended prior to tests for lipid levels. InstructionsThe day beforeDo not eat or drink anything except water for at least 10 (preferably 12) hours before taking this test.On the dayThis test is ideally done in the early morning after an overnight fast. Do not forget to take your ID with you.

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13 March 2023
Markers

TSH

TSH
What is TSH?TSH is produced by the pituitary gland and is part of the body's system to maintain correct amounts of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) in the blood and to help control the rate at which the body uses energy.The thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) test is the most common test for evaluating thyroid function and/or symptoms of a thyroid disorder.Why Test TSH? Unless this is ordered as a retest or for a specific reason, we recommend ordering TSH as part of a health test. You may want to test TSH along with other thyroid markers for these reasons:Symptoms You have symptoms of thyroid disorder, even if other thyroid results are within rangeHealth checkAs part of a general health and wellness check to screen for thyroid disordersMonitoringTo monitor a thyroid disorder, your need for medications, and the progression of your illness.  If you have just changed your dose of thyroid medication, wait 6-8 weeks before testing TSH again in order to get an accurate result.FertilityTo help to diagnose and investigate fertility problems in womenWhat do the results mean?Whether it is high or low, an abnormal TSH indicates too much or too little thyroid hormone, but it doesn’t show why. Further testing is needed for this purpose. A normal TSH value does not necessarily rule out thyroid imbalances. They must be interpreted alongside your other thyroid markers and a person’s current symptoms and medical history. If your TSH is normal and you have symptoms that could be attributed to thyroid problems, it is important to investigate further. Consult your doctor to discuss your results and symptoms. Discuss any relevant lifestyle, nutrition, or dietary changes with your nutritionist to find out the root cause of the problem.What are the symptoms of hyperthyroidism?Common symptoms of hyperthyroidism (an overactive thyroid function) include unwanted weight loss even when your food intake stays the same, rapid heartbeat, irregular heartbeat, nervousness, anxiety, irritability, tremor, enlarged thyroid gland (called goiter, which can be seen as a swelling at the base of your neck), sweating, changes in menstrual patterns, increased sensitivity to heat, changes in bowel movement especially more frequent ones, fatigue, muscle weakness, difficulty sleeping, thinning skin and brittle hair.What are the symptoms of hypothyroidism?Common symptoms of hypothyroidism (an underactive thyroid) include fatigue, feeling cold, often cold hands, feet and tip of nose, constipation, dry skin, weight gain or difficulty losing weight, puffy face, hoarseness, muscle weakness, stiff and achy muscles, slowed heart rate, dry and thinning hair, poor memory, and depression.What causes low TSH?Low TSH most commonly means that a person has hyperthyroidism or an overactive thyroid. Normally hypothyroidism presents with normal to high TSH and normal to low T4 and T3. However, this is not true for everyone. In rare cases, patients with hypothyroidism present with low TSH as well as low T4, due to pituitary failure.Common symptoms of hyperthyroidism (an overactive thyroid function) include; unwanted weight loss even when your food intake stays the same, rapid heartbeat, irregular heartbeat, nervousness, anxiety, irritability, tremor, enlarged thyroid gland (a goiter that can be seen as a swelling at the base of your neck), sweating, changes in menstrual patterns, increased sensitivity to heat, changes in bowel movement especially more frequent ones, fatigue, muscle weakness, difficulty sleeping, thinning skin and brittle hair.Common symptoms of hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) include fatigue, feeling cold, often cold hands, feet, and the tip of the nose, constipation, dry skin, weight gain or difficulty losing weight, puffy face, hoarseness, muscle weakness, stiff and achy muscles, slowed heart rate, dry and thinning hair, poor memory, and depression.Many factors affect TSH results, including age, ethnicity, gender, medication use, and BMI.  In America, the average TSH level is 1.5 in patients without known thyroid disease, and many doctors find that their patients feel their best between the range 1.5-2 mU/L. Functional labs, which work withWhat causes high TSH?A high TSH alongside low free T4 may indicate an underactive thyroid gland and some kind of thyroid dysfunction. High TSH may mean that a person has hypothyroidism (low thyroid function). It may indicate that a person’s thyroid hormone medication needs adjusting, or that there is a problem with the pituitary gland.  Sometimes TSH is temporarily elevated due to stress and/or infections.The most common cause of hypothyroidism is Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, an autoimmune disease. We strongly recommend that you do a full thyroid panel to thoroughly investigate the cause of your high TSH. Common symptoms of hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) include fatigue, feeling cold, often cold hands, feet, and the tip of the nose, constipation, dry skin, weight gain or difficulty losing weight, puffy face, hoarseness, muscle weakness, stiff and achy muscles, slowed heart rate, dry and thinning hair, poor memory, and depression.More InformationThe normal range for TSH is controversial. Most labs still consider the upper range to be between 4 and 5 mU/L. In 2003 the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists recommended lowering the reference range to 0.3-3 mU/L but clinical guidelines were not changed. In America, the mean TSH level is 1.5 in patients without known thyroid disease and many doctors find that their patients feel their best at an upper limit of 1.5-2 mU/L. Functional labs, which work with reference levels to obtain optimal health, have their upper limit of 1.5-2 mU/L.It’s important to note that a single thyroid marker cannot give a clear picture. A normal TSH result does not rule out thyroid problems. Thyroid markers must be interpreted alongside your other thyroid markers, current symptoms, and medical history. InstructionsNo advance preparation is required for this test.On the dayRemember to take I.D. with you when going to take a test.  Do not take your thyroid medication until after you have taken this test. 

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10 March 2023
Markers

Urea

Urea
What is urea? Urea is produced in the liver from the breakdown of amino acids found in proteins. Urea is released into the bloodstream. It is then transported to the kidneys and excreted in your urine. Healthy kidneys remove more than 90% of the urea the body produces, so a blood test can show how well your kidneys are working. Most kidney and liver diseases can affect blood levels of urea. If the liver produces more urea than normal, or the kidneys excrete less, blood urea levels will rise. If liver damage/disease reduces urea production, levels may fall.Why test urea?Health CheckDiscover your risk factors for lifestyle diseases in time to do something about them. MonitoringTo monitor or retest your urea levels if a previous test was out of range. SymptomsIf you have any symptoms related to the liver or kidneys. What causes low urea? Low urea levels are uncommon and are not usually concerning. Sometimes liver diseases and malnutrition can cause low urea levels. Low urea levels can also be normal in pregnancy. What causes high urea levels? High urea levels indicate poor kidney function. Acute or chronic kidney disease can cause high urea levels. Other things that increase urea levels include decreased blood flow to the kidneys caused by congestive heart failure, stress, shock, recent heart attack or burns, intestinal bleeding, and dehydration. More informationAge, high or low protein intake, and medications can affect urea levels. Your doctor may monitor your urea and creatinine levels if you take certain medicines. InstructionsOn the day of the testRemember to take ID with you when going to take a test. 

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25 March 2024
Markers

Uric Acid

Uric Acid
What is uric acid? Uric acid is a normal waste product produced when your body breaks down the purines from foods, drinks and dead cells. Uric acid is transported to the kidneys and excreted in your urine. If you have too much uric acid in your body, it can lead to a painful health condition known as gout.Why test uric acid?If you have gout symptoms, or want to do an annual health test, or monitor your uric acid levels. What do the results mean?   What causes low uric acid levels? Some health conditions may cause low uric acid levels. These include alcoholism and kidney disease.What causes high uric acid levels? The following can cause high uric acid levels: your body makes too much uric acid, your kidneys remove less uric acid than expected, or you consume many purine-rich foods. Foods high in purines include red meat, organ meats, some seafood (e.g. sardines, tuna, anchovies, trout), alcohol, and high fructose corn syrup.What are the symptoms of high uric acid levels?High uric acid levels can cause gout symptoms like pain, swelling, or redness in the toes, ankles or knees. InstructionsOn the day of the testRemember to take I.D. with you when going to take a test. Sit down for 15 minutes and rest before taking a test.

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12 March 2023
Markers

Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12
What is Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)?Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin that is involved in the metabolism of all human cells. B12 is an essential vitamin, meaning that it must be obtained from the diet.  Deficiency can result in cognitive and mental problems, dizziness and numbness, and - if left untreated - permanent neurological damage. Vitamin B12 deficiency is quite common.  Estimates suggest that up to 20% of the elderly population may be deficient or depleted in Vitamin B12 (1). Pregnant women and young children, vegetarians, vegans, and patients with intestinal problems or those taking stomach acid suppressants are all at increased risk of B12 deficiency. Taking a serum vitamin B12 test may not be enough to determine B12 sufficiency.  In case of doubt, an MMA test can help to confirm B12 status.   Why Test Vitamin B12?Unless this is ordered as a retest or for a specific reason, we recommend ordering this as part of a health test.SymptomsSymptoms related to B12 deficiency include mood swings, hand/feet numbness, ‘brain fog’, fatigue, headaches, depression, anemia, infertility, insomnia, irritability and anxiety.Risk FactorsVegans, vegetarians and those who eat no or little meat/seafood or have celiac/intestinal disease.Health HistoryYou have a history of low B12, or other reasons that suggest you may have low B12.Medications You take a drug, such as hydrocortisone or antacids, that increases the need for B12.What do the results mean?Normal serum B12 levels may indicate sufficiency and suggest that symptoms are likely due to another cause.  However, if symptoms are present and persist, a methylmalonic acid (MMA) test may be needed to complete the picture. This is especially true if B12 is in the lower half of the reference range. What causes low vitamin B12?The level of vitamin B12 circulating in your bloodstream is lower than expected. A low B12 and/or folate level, especially accompanied by signs and symptoms, indicates vitamin B12 deficiency. The extent of the anemia or associated neuropathy cannot be detected on a serum B12 test. A level within the reference range does not necessarily indicate optimal levels and cannot rule out deficiency.The serum vitamin B12 test is limited in specificity and sensitivity and misses many people within the ‘grey zone’ of deficiency. Therefore, those with signs and symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency should follow-up with a homocysteine test, and possibly an MMA test, in order to better determine vitamin B12 status. This is particularly true if the result is within the lower half of the reference range. but even higher serum vitamin B12 levels do not indicate that vitamin B12 is being properly utilized at the cellular level.This is when an MMA test may be helpful (the MMA test measures cellular levels). Causes of vitamin B deficiency include diets low in B12 (such as vegan diets), pregnancy and breastfeeding, malabsorption, celiac disease, pernicious anemia, and gastric bypass surgery.Several health conditions can cause vitamin B deficiency, including pernicious anemia, (the most common cause), celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s’ disease, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), intestinal parasites, such as tapeworms, hypochlorhydria (reduced stomach acid production). B12 can also be lowered by medications including aspirin, metformin, and birth control pills.Deficiency is common with: Unsupplemented vegan diet Long-term use of antacids or H2 proton pump inhibitors Surgery to remove parts of the stomach, such as gastric bypass, or the intestines Pancreatic Insufficiency Heavy drinking or chronic alcoholism Medication use (e.g. metformin, omeprazole, methotrexate, and medications to prevent seizures)  What causes high vitamin B12?High vitamin B12 levels are very often caused by excessive supplementation. High levels of B12 are not very common and are not usually monitored. However, elevated B12 levels can be indicative of a health condition.More informationHigh levels of folic acid supplements can mask B12 deficiency. Please tell us if you are taking folic acid supplements.InstructionsNo advance preparation is needed for this test.  Remember to take I.D. with you when going to take a test.  

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13 March 2023
Markers

Vitamin D

Vitamin D
What is Vitamin D?Vitamin D is an important fat-soluble vitamin. Every cell in your body has vitamin D receptors. Vitamin D is especially important for bone formation, immune health, muscles, heart, lung, and brain function. Recent research suggests that optimal vitamin D levels may help to prevent several long-term health problems.  Your body synthesizes vitamin D from sunlight. In the northern hemispheres, it is difficult to get enough vitamin D from the sun. However, even those from hot and sunny countries are often vitamin D deficient. You can also supplement vitamin D and get a small amount from some foods.  Calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin K2 are essential for developing the structure and strength of your bones and you need vitamin D to absorb them. Recent research suggests that optimal vitamin D levels may help to prevent several long-term health problems.Why test vitamin D?Unless this is ordered as a retest or for a specific reason, we recommend ordering this as part of a health test.Limited sun exposureIf you don’t get enough sun exposure, always cover up, or have dark skin, you are at risk of vitamin D deficiency - even if you live in a hot country.GeneticsSome people have genetic risk factors that reduce their absorption of vitamin D.MonitoringMonitor a low value or track it over time as you make lifestyle changes or undergo treatments.PregnancyVitamin D is very important for maternal and fetal health. It is your baby’s sole source of vitamin D and is required for good health, particularly teeth, bones, and immune function.50+Those aged 50+ are most vulnerable to a lack of vitamin D. Synthesis of vitamin D decreases with age.MedicationsYou take a drug, such as hydrocortisone or antacids, which increases the need for vitamin D.What causes low vitamin D?A low level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D means that you do not have enough vitamin D in your bloodstream and probably need to supplement and/or expose yourself to more sunlight, depending on your levels. It may mean that you do not absorb vitamin D well from the intestines. Drugs used to treat seizures, particularly phenytoin (Dilantin), can interfere with the production of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the liver.Vitamin D deficiency is defined as a 25(OH)D level of 20 ng/mL or less, and vitamin D insufficiency as 21 – 29 ng/ML. This is based on the observed physiological changes in calcium absorption and parathyroid hormone levels that occur with changes in vitamin D levels.Studies have linked blood 25(OH)D levels between 30 ng/mL and 60 ng/mL with lower risks of health conditions, including autoimmune conditions, cardiovascular disease, and some cancers. These include lack of sun exposure, place of residence, atmospheric conditions (air pollution, clouds), dark skin, which affects the skin’s ability to produce vitamin D, clothing choices, including headscarves, sunscreen, malabsorption, gut conditions like inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, liver disease, low intake, veganism, kidney disease, old age, obesity, pregnancy, and certain medications. Vitamin D deficiency tends to be caused by inadequate sun exposure, although genetic factors and diet can contribute. Nordic Wellth’s nutritional therapists are university-qualified and are trained and insured to address any dietary and lifestyle factors, including supplementation advice, considering any health conditions and medications used. We work alongside a doctor when required and can help you to find the right doctor. What causes high vitamin D?A very high level* may indicates toxicity and is most often caused by excessive supplementation, but can also be due to health conditions such as sarcoidosis. There is little consensus about reference ranges, however currently a level between 75 and 150 nmol/l is considered optimal and at least one study concluded that a level of 90-120 nmol/l may be optimal for cancer prevention (1), (2).*The Swedish laboratories we use for this test have set the upper limit for toxicity at >250nmol/l, although based on its understanding and review of relevant research, the vitamin D Society has set a higher level of 375 nmol/l. The Vitamin D Council recognizes that there are not enough controlled trials to support or oppose their recommendations.More informationYour body synthesizes vitamin D from sunlight and in the northern hemisphere it is difficult to get enough vitamin D from the sun. However, even those from hot and sunny countries are often Vitamin D deficient. Some people do not absorb vitamin D well for genetic reasons. Severe vitamin D deficiency causes rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Both conditions cause soft, thin, and brittle bones.The best way to get sufficient vitamin D is from sunlight, but you can also supplement vitamin D and get a small amount from some foods. Calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin K2 are essential for developing the structure and strength of your bones and you need vitamin D to absorb them. Recent research suggests that optimal vitamin D levels may help to prevent several long-term health problems.InstructionsNo preparation is needed for this test.

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13 March 2023
Markers

Zinc

Zinc
What is Zinc?Zinc is an essential mineral and antioxidant that has a role in several of the body's most important functions, from cell formation to testosterone levels. It is an essential part of your body’s defense against oxidative stress.  Zinc is required for a healthy immune system, healthy skin, strong bones, wound healing, recovery after exercise, and healthy aging.Even minor deficiencies can result in frequent coughs and colds.  It is involved in the expression of genes and is therefore especially important in growth stages, such as pregnancy, lactation, and in childhood.Why test zinc?Unless this is ordered as a retest or for a specific reason, we recommend ordering this as part of a health test.Health CheckDiscover your risk factors for lifestyle diseases in time to do something about them.MonitoringTo monitor low or insufficient zinc levels, particularly if often sick, wounds heal slowly, or you experience slow recovery after exertion.Dietary FactorsMost bioavailable zinc is found in animal foods.  Alcohol depletes zinc and blocks absorption. Vegetarians, vegans, those avoiding red meat/seafood, and heavy drinkers may be low in zinc.60+Zinc is very important for healthy aging, especially for immune system function after age 60.SymptomsYou have symptoms of zinc deficiency, including diarrhea, impaired wound healing, acne, eczema, dermatitis, mouth ulcers, impaired growth in children, or low testosterone.Health HistoryYou suffer regular coughs, colds, or other illnesses, have dry skin that marks easily, or suffer from a chronic illness that affects zinc levels (e.g., malabsorption syndrome, GI disease, liver disease, diabetes, anorexia nervosa).Pregnancy, fertility, and breastfeedingZinc improves fertility in both sexes, increasing sperm production in men.AthletesLow zinc levels can lower resilience, reduce performance, and impair muscle development.MedicationsYou take a drug, such as hydrocortisone or prednisone, which increases the need for zinc.What causes low zinc?Low zinc may indicate a zinc deficiency, although the body lowers zinc in response to infection, so results should be interpreted with clinical symptoms and history. Since zinc is bound to albumin, albumin results can be useful alongside zinc. Low zinc with normal albumin can suggest zinc deficiency. If both zinc and albumin are low, this suggests an acute phase response to infection rather than a zinc deficiency. If you are deficient in zinc, you either don’t get enough zinc from your diet, or you don’t absorb it properly. Zinc deficiency can take a long time to show up on a blood test.What causes high zinc?High levels are uncommon because excess zinc is excreted from the body via urine and feces.  High levels are most often due to excessive supplementation, industrial exposure, or exposure to household products that contain zinc (e.g paint, varnish, and cleaning products). More informationThere is no perfect test for zinc deficiency. Serum (plasma) zinc is the only test that is routinely available.  Serum testing is not very specific for slight deficiency, meaning that someone may have a normal zinc level even if they are deficient.InstructionsThe day beforeFasting for 10 (but preferably 12) hours is recommended because zinc concentrations may decrease after eating meals.The day beforeRemember to take ID with you when going to take a test. 

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